Gender Differences in Mathematics

An Integrative Psychological Approach

Author: Ann M. Gallagher,James C. Kaufman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139443753

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 7346

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Females consistently score lower than males on standardized tests of mathematics - yet no such differences exist in the classroom. These differences are not trivial, nor are they insignificant. Test scores help determine entrance to college and graduate school and therefore, by extension, a person's job and future success. If females receive lower test scores then they also receive fewer opportunities. Why does this discrepancy exist? This book presents a series of papers that address these issues by integrating the latest research findings and theories. Authors such as Diane Halpern, Jacquelynne Eccles, Beth Casey, Ronald Nuttal, James Byrnes, and Frank Pajares tackle these questions from a variety of perspectives. Many different branches of psychology are represented, including cognitive, social, personality/self-oriented, and psychobiological. The editors then present an integrative chapter that discusses the ideas presented and other areas that the field should explore.

Why Aren't More Women in Science?

Top Researchers Debate the Evidence

Author: Stephen J. Ceci,Wendy Melissa Williams

Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 254

View: 7917

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Why aren't more women pursuing careers in science, engineering, and math? Is the lack of women in these fields a consequence of societal discouragements, innate differences in ability between the sexes, or differences in aspirations? These questions always spark a host of other questions -- and a multiplicity of answers -- all of which have important implications for gender equality and for retaining the nation's competitiveness in the technological marketplace. The most reliable and current knowledge about women's participation in science is presented in this collection of fifteen essays written by top researchers on gender differences in ability. The essayists were chosen to reflect the diversity and complexity of views on the topic, about which knowledge has been accumulating and evolving for decades. The editors provide an introduction that defines the key issues and embeds them in historical context and a conclusion that synthesizes and integrates the disparate views. Written accessibly to appeal to students and non-specialists as well as psychologists and other social scientists, the contributors reframe this key controversy and challenge readers' emotional and political biases through solid empirical science. Taken together, the introduction, essays, and conclusion make a convincing case that sex differences are neither as unambiguous as earlier researchers suggested nor as insubstantial as some current critics claim. Sex differences in career choices are definitely not inevitable, as the past thirty years have documented both a sea change in the gender makeup of various fields and fluctuations in ability-score differences between the sexes. However, as the essays make clear, such changes leave open the possibility of cultural and biological bases for today's sex differences in science, engineering, and math participation.

Women in Mathematics

The Addition of Difference

Author: Claudia Henrion

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253114990

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 1332

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"... a wonderful addition to any mathematics teacher's professional bookshelf." -- The Mathematics Teacher "The individual biographies themselves make for enthralling, often inspiring, reading... this volume should be compelling reading for women mathematics students and professionals. A fine addition to the literature on women in science... Highly recommended." -- Choice "... it makes an important contribution to scholarship on the interrelations of gender, mathematics, and culture in the U.S. in the second half of the twentieth century." -- Notices of the AMS "Who is the audience for this book? Certainly women who are interested in studying mathematics and women already in mathematics who have become discouraged will find much to interest and help them. Faculty who teach such women would put it to good use. But it would be a loss to relegate the book to a shelf for occasional reference to an interested student or beginning mathematician. Everyone in the mathematics community in which each of Henrion's subjects struggled so hard to find a place could benefit by a thoughtful reading." -- Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) News Mathematics is often described as the purest of the sciences, the least tainted by subjective or cultural influences. Theoretically, the only requirement for a life of mathematics is mathematical ability. And yet we see very few women mathematicians. Why? Based upon a series of ten intensive interviews with prominent women mathematicians throughout the United States, this book investigates the role of gender in the complex relationship between mathematician, the mathematical community, and mathematics itself.

Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine,Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309155861

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 1243

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Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this congressionally mandated book is based on two unique surveys of faculty and departments at major U.S. research universities in six fields: biology, chemistry, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mathematics, and physics. A departmental survey collected information on departmental policies, recent tenure and promotion cases, and recent hires in almost 500 departments. A faculty survey gathered information from a stratified, random sample of about 1,800 faculty on demographic characteristics, employment experiences, the allocation of institutional resources such as laboratory space, professional activities, and scholarly productivity. This book paints a timely picture of the status of female faculty at top universities, clarifies whether male and female faculty have similar opportunities to advance and succeed in academia, challenges some commonly held views, and poses several questions still in need of answers. This book will be of special interest to university administrators and faculty, graduate students, policy makers, professional and academic societies, federal funding agencies, and others concerned with the vitality of the U.S. research base and economy.

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities

4th Edition

Author: Diane F. Halpern

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136722831

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 735

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This book critically examines research on the controversial topic of sex differences in cognitive abilities, with the aim of understanding where sex differences are found and where they are not. It can be used as a textbook, and also informs parents, teachers, and policymakers about the ways in the sexes are different and similar.

International Perspectives on Gender and Mathematics Education

Author: Olof Steinthorsdottir,Helen J. Forgasz,Joanne Rossi Becker,Kyeonghwa Lee

Publisher: IAP

ISBN: 1617350435

Category: Education

Page: 467

View: 7367

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Why a book on gender issues in mathematics in the 21st century? Several factors have influenced the undertaking of this project by the editors. First, an international volume focusing on gender and mathematics has not appeared since publication of papers emerging from the 1996 International Congress on Mathematical Education (Keitel, 1998). Surely it was time for an updated look at this critical area of mathematics education. Second, we have had lively discussion and working groups on gender issues at conferences of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education [PME] for the past four years, sessions at which stimulating and groundbreaking research has been discussed by participants from many different countries. Some publication seemed essential to share this new knowledge emerging from a wider variety of countries and from different cultural perspectives. Third, some western countries such as Australia and the USA have experienced in recent years a focus on the “boy problem,” with an underlying assumption that issues of females and mathematics have been solved and are no longer worthy of interest. Thus it seemed timely to look more closely at the issue of gender and mathematics internationally. When the idea for this volume first emerged, invitations were issued to those regularly attending the working and discussion groups at PME. Potential authors were charged to focus on gender issues in mathematics and were given wide scope to hone in on the issues that were central to their own research efforts, or were in receipt or in need of close attention in their own national or regional contexts.

Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction

Author: Louise Cherry Wilkinson,Cora B. Marrett

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483276295

Category: Education

Page: 292

View: 1828

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Educational Psychology Series: Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction compiles papers presented at a conference funded by the National Institute of Education and held at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin—Madison in October 1983. This book focuses on the interactional influences that may be related to differential classroom experiences for females and males. A diversity of issues that have a bearing on gender-related influences, such as contextual factors and teacher and student characteristics, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives are also deliberated. This compilation is addressed primarily to researchers, but is also useful to teachers, educational policy makers, and others who want to insure every child, regardless of gender or other status, the opportunity of a rewarding and challenging education.

Gender Differences in Aspirations and Attainment

Author: Ingrid Schoon,Jacquelynne S. Eccles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107021723

Category: Psychology

Page: 510

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A dynamic and contextualized account of the processes and mechanisms underlying gendered career decisions and attainment across the life course.

The Mathematics of Sex

How Biology and Society Conspire to Limit Talented Women and Girls

Author: Stephen J. Ceci,Wendy M. Williams

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195389395

Category: Psychology

Page: 270

View: 4202

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Even though women consistently receive better grades in math and science, men excel on math aptitude tests and are greatly overrepresented in the so-called hard sciences. The Mathematics of Sex explores why males are overrepresented in mathematically intensive professions such as physics, computer science, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. Bringing together for the first time important research from such diverse fields as endocrinology, economics, sociology, education, genetics, and psychology, the authors show that two factors - the parenting choices women (but not men) have to make, and the tendency of bright women to choose people-oriented fields like medicine - largely account for the under-representation of women in the hard sciences. Further, research shows that biology itself - differences in hormones or brain organization - does not fully account for the problem. Compressing an enormous amount of information - over 400 studies - into a readable, engaging accountsuitable for parents, educators, and policymakers, this book advances the debate about women in science unlike any other book before it.

Mathematics and Gender

Author: Elizabeth Fennema,Gilah C. Leder

Publisher: Teachers College Press

ISBN: 9780807730010

Category: Education

Page: 214

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This edited collection describes how the Autonomous Learning Behaviours (ALB) model, formulated by Fennema and Peterson, specifically relates to gender differences in mathematics education, learning and performance. The book provides a background to the debate on gender differences; considers the interactions between internal beliefs and external influences, as well as their effects on learning math; and provides a summary of the latest research relevant to the ALB model. Gender differences in learning mathematics is examined from a variety of perspectives, strengthened by longitudinal studies and a cross-cultural American and Australian perspective..

Towards Gender Equity in Mathematics Education

An ICMI Study

Author: Gila Hanna

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306472058

Category: Education

Page: 305

View: 3169

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THE REAL WORLD OF MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION In this Preface, I would like to focus on what I mean by “education” and speak about the models and metaphors that are used when people talk, write, and act in the domain of education. We need to look at the assu- tions and processes that the models and metaphors implicitly and explicitly contain. I feel we should explore whether there is a specific thrust to mat- matics education in the here and now, and be very practical about it. For me education is the enhancement of knowledge and understanding, and there is a strong and unbreakable link between the two. There seems l- tle point in acquiring knowledge without understanding its meaning. Nor is it enough to gain a deep understanding of problems without gaining the appropriate knowledge to work for their solution. Thus knowledge and understanding are each necessary conditions for the process of education, but only when they are linked will the process bear fruit. Only in the b- anced interplay of knowledge and understanding can we expect to achieve genuine education.

Situations Matter

Understanding how Context Transforms Your World

Author: Sam Sommers

Publisher: Riverhead Books (Hardcover)

ISBN: 1594486204

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 321

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A lighthearted exploration of the unconscious forces that influence a life reveals the unrecognized power of context in everyday situations while sharing recommendations for using contextual insights to reshape how one sees the world and improve personal productivity and relationships. Reprint.

Encyclopedia of human intelligence

Author: Robert J. Sternberg

Publisher: Macmillan Reference USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Intellect

Page: 1235

View: 2758

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This collection illuminates the mysteries of the human mind. The articles cover basic elements of intelligence (attention span, decision making, intuition), specialized learning (athletic ability, the development of artistic skills, musical aptitude), and the physiological, environmental and emotional aspects of intelligence. Explanations and biographies are accessible to all readers.

Women in Science

Career Processes and Outcomes

Author: Yu Xie,Kimberlee A. Shauman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780674018594

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 8490

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Why do so few women choose a career in science--even as they move into medicine and law in ever-greater numbers? In one of the most comprehensive studies of gender differences in science careers ever conducted, Women in Science provides a systematic account of how U.S. youth are selected into and out of science education in early life, and how social forces affect career outcomes later in the science labor market. Studying the science career trajectory in its entirety, the authors attend to the causal influences of prior experiences on career outcomes as well as the interactions of multiple life domains such as career and family. While attesting to the progress of women in science, the book also reveals continuing gender differences in mathematics and science education and in the progress and outcomes of scientists' careers. The authors explore the extent and causes of gender differences in undergraduate and graduate science education, in scientists' geographic mobility, in research productivity, in promotion rates and earnings, and in the experience of immigrant scientists. They conclude that the gender gap in parenting responsibilities is a critical barrier to the further advancement of women in science.

Gender Differences in Metabolism

Practical and Nutritional Implications

Author: Mark Tarnopolsky

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849381942

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 4221

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Gender Differences in Metabolism: Practical and Nutritional Implications is the first book to successfully integrate nutritional science, exercise physiology/medicine, and metabolism. This volume explores recent scientific evidence that male and female athletes exhibit different metabolic responses and, therefore, differ in their nutritional needs and advice. Anyone interested in good health, exercise, and nutrition will find this book a valuable resource.

Feminist Visions of Gender Similarities and Differences

Author: Meredith M. Kimball

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781560249634

Category: Social Science

Page: 227

View: 2838

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Winner of the Distinguished Publication Award 1996 from the Association for Women in Psychology, Feminist Visions of Gender Similarities and Differences opens a dialectic between the two traditions of feminism--similarities-based and differences-based--and generates useful scientific, political, and psychological tensions. Psychologists and scholars can benefit from Meredith Kimball's analysis and the tensions she creates because they ultimately broaden feminist visions. She informs the political analysis of those working on the inside and those on the outside of feminism to end all forms of discrimination and oppression. In opening the dialogue between the two traditions, Kimball presents a brief history of gender research and equal-rights feminisms in the early twentieth century, with an in-depth analysis of the work of Leta Stetter Hollingworth. analyzes women's experience in and feminist critiques of science and technology. analyzes research on gender-related similarities and differences in mathematics achievement. presents a brief history of psychoanalytic gender theory and maternal feminisms in the early twentieth century, with an in-depth analysis of the work of Karen Horney. analyzes Kohlberg's and Gilligan's models of moral development. gives a broad overview and analysis of women's caregiving in North America and cross-culturally in motherist-based political movements. The educated reader, whether actively involved in feminism or the general political arena, can apply the non-reductionist political analysis to their own theories and research. Because all oppressed groups face dilemmas of integrating into the dominant culture versus changing the dominant culture, members of these groups will appreciate the over-arching political analysis that forms the theme of Feminist Visions of Gender Similarities and Differences.