Freedom Riders

1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice

Author: Raymond Arsenault

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195327144

Category: History

Page: 690

View: 8531

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Relives a critical episode in American history that transformed the Civil Rights Movement when a group of volunteers traveled by bus in 1961 from Washington, D.C., through the deep South, defying Jim Crow laws and putting their lives on the line for racial justice.

Freedom Riders

1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice

Author: Raymond Arsenault

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199792962

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6747

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The saga of the Freedom Rides is an improbable, almost unbelievable story. In the course of six months in 1961, four hundred and fifty Freedom Riders expanded the realm of the possible in American politics, redefining the limits of dissent and setting the stage for the civil rights movement. In this new version of his encyclopedic Freedom Riders, Raymond Arsenault offers a significantly condensed and tautly written account. With characters and plot lines rivaling those of the most imaginative fiction, this is a tale of heroic sacrifice and unexpected triumph. Arsenault recounts how a group of volunteers--blacks and whites--came together to travel from Washington DC through the Deep South, defying Jim Crow laws in buses and terminals and putting their lives on the line for racial justice. News photographers captured the violence in Montgomery, shocking the nation and sparking a crisis in the Kennedy administration. Here are the key players--their fears and courage, their determination and second thoughts, and the agonizing choices they faced as they took on Jim Crow--and triumphed. Winner of the Owsley Prize Publication is timed to coincide with the airing of the American Experience miniseries documenting the Freedom Rides "Arsenault brings vividly to life a defining moment in modern American history." --Eric Foner, The New York Times Book Review "Authoritative, compelling history." --William Grimes, The New York Times "For those interested in understanding 20th-century America, this is an essential book." --Roger Wilkins, Washington Post Book World "Arsenault's record of strategy sessions, church vigils, bloody assaults, mass arrests, political maneuverings and personal anguish captures the mood and the turmoil, the excitement and the confusion of the movement and the time." --Michael Kenney, The Boston Globe

Freedom Riders

1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice

Author: Raymond Arsenault

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199754314

Category: Law

Page: 306

View: 9775

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Presents a comprehensive study of the 1961 Freedom Rides from Washington DC to the deep south that challenged the segregated transit laws, and describes the brutal confrontation between the riders and the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama and Mississippi.

The Sound of Freedom

Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Concert That Awakened America

Author: Raymond Arsenault

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1608190560

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 526

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Chronicles the landmark 1939 concert, offers insight into the period's racial climate, describes Eleanor Roosevelt's resignation from the DAR for barring Anderson's performances, and pays tribute to the singer's significant contributions.

The Freedom Rides and Alabama

A Guide to Key Events and Places, Context, and Impact

Author: Arlam Carr

Publisher: NewSouth Books

ISBN: 1603063242

Category: History

Page: 90

View: 7013

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This concise guidebook gives a brief overview of the 1961 Freedom Rides, a crucial moment in American history in which an interracial group traveled across the South to protest segregated transportation. The Freedom Rides and Alabama focuses on the Freedom Riders? experiences in Alabama, from the firebombing of their bus in Anniston to surviving beatings in Birmingham. A large portion of this book describes the riders? arrival in Montgomery, including the violent white mob that greeted them and the ensuing mass meeting at First Baptist Church, where leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Fred Shuttlesworth spoke. This volume puts the Freedom Rides in historical context and is published in conjunction with the Alabama Historical Commission to celebrate the opening of a Montgomery museum at the site of the Greyhound station where the Freedom Riders arrived on their journey south, dedicated to the history of the Freedom Rides on the occasion of their fiftieth anniversary.

One Mississippi, Two Mississippi

Methodists, Murder, and the Struggle for Racial Justice in Neshoba County

Author: Carol V. R. George

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190231092

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8521

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During Freedom Summer 1964, three young civil rights workers who were tasked with registering voters at Mt. Zion Methodist Church in Neshoba County, Mississippi were murdered there by law enforcement and Ku Klux Klansmen. The murders were hardly noticed in the area, so familiar had such violence become in the Magnolia State. For forty-one days the bodies of the three men lay undetected in a nearby dam, and for years afterward efforts to bring those responsible to justice were met only with silence. In One Mississippi, Two Mississippi, Carol V.R. George links the history of the Methodist Church (now the United Methodist Church), with newly-researched local history to show the role of this large denomination, important to both blacks and whites, in Mississippi's stumble toward racial justice. From 1930-1968, white Methodists throughout the church segregated their black co-religionists, silencing black ministers and many white ministers as well, locking their doors to all but their own members. Finally, the combination of civil rights activism and embarrassed Methodist morality persuaded the United Methodists to restore black people to full membership. As the county and church integrated, volunteers from all races began to agitate for a new trial for the chief conspirator of the murders. In 2005, forty-one years after the killings, the accused was found guilty, his fate determined by local jurors who deliberated in a city ringed with casinos, unrecognizable to the old Neshoba. In one sense a spiritual history, the book is a microhistory of Mt. Zion Methodist Church and its struggles with white Neshoba, as a community learned that reconciliation requires a willingness to confront the past fully and truthfully. George draws on interviews with county residents, black and white Methodist leaders, civil rights veterans, and those in civic groups, academia, and state government who are trying to carry the flag for reconciliation. George's sources--printed, oral, and material--offer a compelling account of the way in which residents of a place long reviled as "dark Neshoba" have taken up the task of truth-telling in a world uncomfortable with historical truth.

Autobiography of a Freedom Rider

My Life as a Foot Soldier for Civil Rights

Author: Thomas Armstrong,Natalie Bell

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0757391710

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 216

View: 2279

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In the segregated Deep South when lynching and Klansmen and Jim Crow laws ruled, there stood a line of foot soldiers ready to sacrifice their lives for the right to vote, to enter rooms marked "White Only," and to live with simple dignity. They were called Freedom Riders and Thomas M. Armstrong was one of them. This is his story as well as a look ahead at the work still to be done. June, 1961. Thomas M. Armstrong, determined to challenge segregated interstate bus travel in Mississippi, courageously walks into a Trailways bus station waiting room in Jackson. He is promptly arrested for his part in a strategic plan to gain national attention. The crime? Daring to share breathing space marked "Whites Only." Being of African-American descent in the Mississippi Deep South was literally a crime if you overstepped legal or even unspoken cultural bounds in 1961. The consequences of defying entrenched societal codes could result in brutal beatings, displacement, even murder with no recourse for justice in a corrupt political machine, thick with the grease of racial bias. The Freedom Rides were carefully orchestrated and included both black-and-white patriots devoted to the cause of de-segregation. Autobiography of a Freedom Rider details the strategies employed behind the scenes that resulted in a national spectacle of violence so stunning in Alabama and Mississippi that Robert Kennedy called in Federal marshals. Armstrong's burning need to create social change for his fellow black citizens provides the backdrop of this richly woven memoir that traces back to his great-grandparents as freed slaves, examines the history of the Civil Rights Movement, the devastating personal repercussions Armstrong endured for being a champion of those rights, the sweet taste of progressive advancement in the past 50 years, and a look ahead at the work still to be done. Hundreds were arrested for their part in the Freedom Rides, Thomas M. Armstrong amongst them. But it is the authors' quest to give homage to "the true heroes of the civil rights movement . . . the everyday black Southerners who confronted the laws of segregation under which they lived . . . the tens of thousands of us who took a chance with our lives when we decided that no longer would we accept the legacy of exclusion that had robbed our ancestors of hope and faith in a just society."

America's Growing Inequality

The Impact of Poverty and Race

Author: Chester Hartman

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739191721

Category: Political Science

Page: 580

View: 8938

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America’s Growing Inequality presents the links between racism and poverty in the United States, highlighting the work of social justice organizations to facilitate an end to their presence in society. The facts, analyses, and policy proposals that comprise this book will inform scholars and students in a range of disciplines including sociology, social work, urban planning, and economics.

Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society

Author: Richard T. Schaefer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412926947

Category: Social Science

Page: 1622

View: 4605

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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area

The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture

Volume 10: Law and Politics

Author: James W. Ely Jr.,Bradley G. Bond

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469616742

Category: Reference

Page: 456

View: 5368

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Volume 10 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture combines two of the sections from the original edition, adding extensive updates and 53 entirely new articles. In the law section of this volume, 16 longer essays address broad concepts ranging from law schools to family law, from labor relations to school prayer. The 43 topical entries focus on specific legal cases and individuals, including historical legal professionals, parties from landmark cases, and even the fictional character Atticus Finch, highlighting the roles these individuals have played in shaping the identity of the region. The politics section includes 34 essays on matters such as Reconstruction, social class and politics, and immigration policy. New essays reflect the changing nature of southern politics, away from the one-party system long known as the "solid South" to the lively two-party politics now in play in the region. Seventy shorter topical entries cover individual politicians, political thinkers, and activists who have made significant contributions to the shaping of southern politics.

Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement

Author: Michael J. Klarman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198042006

Category: Law

Page: 296

View: 1437

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A splendid account of the Supreme Court's rulings on race in the first half of the twentieth century, From Jim Crow To Civil Rights earned rave reviews and won the Bancroft Prize for History in 2005. Now, in this marvelously abridged, paperback edition, Michael J. Klarman has compressed his acclaimed study into tight focus around one major case--Brown v. Board of Education--making the path-breaking arguments of his original work accessible to a broader audience of general readers and students. In this revised and condensed edition, Klarman illuminates the impact of the momentous Brown v. Board of Education ruling. He offers a richer, more complex understanding of this pivotal decision, going behind the scenes to examine the justices' deliberations and reconstruct why they found the case so difficult to decide. He recaps his famous backlash thesis, arguing that Brown was more important for mobilizing southern white opposition to change than for encouraging civil rights protest, and that it was only the resulting violence that transformed northern opinion and led to the landmark legislation of the 1960s. Klarman also sheds light on broader questions such as how judges decide cases; how much they are influenced by legal, political, and personal considerations; the relationship between Supreme Court decisions and social change; and finally, how much Court decisions simply reflect societal values and how much they shape those values. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the most important decisions in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court. Klarman's brilliant analysis of this landmark case illuminates the course of American race relations as it highlights the relationship between law and social reform. Acclaim for From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: "A major achievement. It bestows upon its fortunate readers prodigious research, nuanced judgment, and intellectual independence." --Randall Kennedy, The New Republic "Magisterial." --The New York Review of Books "A sweeping, erudite, and powerfully argued book...unfailingly interesting." --Wilson Quarterly

Ella Baker

Community Organizer of the Civil Rights Movement

Author: J. Todd Moye

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442215674

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 204

View: 3422

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Ella Josephine Baker was among the most influential strategists of the most important social movement in modern US history, the civil rights movement. In this book, historian J. Todd Moye masterfully reconstructs Baker’s life and contribution for a new generation of readers.

Roy Wilkins

The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP

Author: Yvonne Ryan

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813143802

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 304

View: 5553

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Roy Wilkins (1901--1981) spent forty-six years of his life serving the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and led the organization for more than twenty years. Under his leadership, the NAACP spearheaded efforts that contributed to landmark civil rights legislation, including the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act. In Roy Wilkins: The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP, Yvonne Ryan offers the first biography of this influential activist, as well as an analysis of his significant contributions to civil rights in America. While activists in Alabama were treading the highways between Selma and Montgomery, Wilkins was walking the corridors of power in Washington, D.C., working tirelessly in the background to ensure that the rights they fought for were protected through legislation and court rulings. With his command of congressional procedure and networking expertise, Wilkins was regarded as a strong and trusted presence on Capitol Hill, and received greater access to the Oval Office than any other civil rights leader during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson. Roy Wilkins fills a significant gap in the history of the civil rights movement, objectively exploring the career and impact of one of its forgotten leaders. The quiet revolutionary, who spent his life navigating the Washington political system, affirmed the extraordinary and courageous efforts of the many men and women who braved the dangers of the southern streets and challenged injustice to achieve equal rights for all Americans.

Acts of Conscience

Christian Nonviolence and Modern American Democracy

Author: Joseph Kip Kosek

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231513054

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 3854

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In response to the massive bloodshed that defined the twentieth century, American religious radicals developed a modern form of nonviolent protest, one that combined Christian principles with new uses of mass media. Greatly influenced by the ideas of Mohandas Gandhi, these "acts of conscience" included sit-ins, boycotts, labor strikes, and conscientious objection to war. Beginning with World War I and ending with the ascendance of Martin Luther King Jr., Joseph Kip Kosek traces the impact of A. J. Muste, Richard Gregg, and other radical Christian pacifists on American democratic theory and practice. These dissenters found little hope in the secular ideologies of Wilsonian Progressivism, revolutionary Marxism, and Cold War liberalism, all of which embraced organized killing at one time or another. The example of Jesus, they believed, demonstrated the immorality and futility of such violence under any circumstance and for any cause. Yet the theories of Christian nonviolence are anything but fixed. For decades, followers have actively reinterpreted the nonviolent tradition, keeping pace with developments in politics, technology, and culture. Tracing the rise of militant nonviolence across a century of industrial conflict, imperialism, racial terror, and international warfare, Kosek recovers radical Christians' remarkable stance against the use of deadly force, even during World War II and other seemingly just causes. His research sheds new light on an interracial and transnational movement that posed a fundamental, and still relevant, challenge to the American political and religious mainstream.

Freedom's Orator

Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s

Author: Robert Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199766345

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 736

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Here is the first biography of Mario Savio, the brilliant leader of Berkeley's Free Speech Movement, the largest and most disruptive student rebellion in American history. Savio risked his life to register black voters in Mississippi in the Freedom Summer of 1964 and did more than anyone to bring daring forms of non-violent protest from the civil rights movement to the struggle for free speech and academic freedom on American campuses. Drawing upon previously unavailable Savio papers, as well as oral histories from friends and fellow movement leaders, Freedom's Orator illuminates Mario's egalitarian leadership style, his remarkable eloquence, and the many ways he embodied the youthful idealism of the 1960s. The book also narrates, for the first time, his second phase of activism against "Reaganite Imperialism" in Central America and the corporatization of higher education. Including a generous selection of Savio's speeches, Freedom's Orator speaks with special relevance to a new generation of activists and to all who cherish the '60s and democratic ideals for which Savio fought so selflessly.

The Establishment Responds

Power, Politics, and Protest since 1945

Author: K. Fahlenbrach,M. Klimke,J. Scharloth,L. Wong

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230119832

Category: History

Page: 251

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This volume fills this gap by examining the many ways in which political parties, the business world, foreign policymakers, and the intelligence community experienced, confronted, and even actively contributed to domestic and transnational forms of dissent.

Freedom's Teacher, Enhanced Ebook

The Life of Septima Clark

Author: Katherine Mellen Charron

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807837601

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 480

View: 869

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Civil rights activist Septima Poinsette Clark (1898-1987) developed a citizenship education program that enabled tens of thousands of African Americans to register to vote and to link the power of the ballot to concrete strategies for individual and communal empowerment. Clark, who began her own teaching career in 1916, grounded her approach in the philosophy and practice of southern black activist educators in the decades leading up to the 1950s and 1960s, and then trained a committed cadre of grassroots black women to lead this literacy revolution in community stores, beauty shops, and churches throughout the South. In this engaging biography, Katherine Charron tells the story of Clark, from her coming of age in the South Carolina lowcountry to her activism with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in the movement's heyday. The enhanced electronic version of the book draws from archives, libraries, and the author's personal collection and includes nearly 100 letters, documents, photographs, newspaper articles, and interview excerpts, embedding each in the text where it will be most meaningful. Featuring more than 60 audio clips (more than 2.5 hours total) from oral history interviews with 15 individuals, including Clark herself, the enhanced e-book redefines the idea of the "talking book." Watch the video below to see a demonstration of the enhanced ebook:

Hidden Figures - Unerkannte Heldinnen

Author: Margot Lee Shetterly

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 3959676433

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 5893

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1943 stellt das Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory der NACA,die später zur NASA wird, erstmalig afroamerikanische Frauen ein. "Menschliche Rechner" - unter ihnen Dorothy Vaughan, die 1953 Vorgesetzte der brillanten afroamerikanischen Mathematikerin Katherine Johnson wird. Trotz Diskriminierung und Vorurteilen, treiben sie die Forschungen der NASA voran und Katherine Johnsons Berechnungen werden maßgeblich für den Erfolg der Apollo-Missionen. Dies ist ihre Geschichte. "Mit dieser unglaublich mitreißenden und vielschichtigen Erzählung zeigt Shetterly ihr Können. Die Geschichte begeistert in allen Aspekten." Booklist

Robert F. Kennedy and the Shaping of Civil Rights, 1960Ð1964

Author: Philip A. Goduti, Jr.

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476600872

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 251

View: 5392

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From the 1960 John F. Kennedy presidential campaign to the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and the Department of Justice worked tirelessly to change the climate of civil rights in the nation. This book explores how the Kennedy brothers and leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., John Lewis and James Meredith, among others, pushed for change at a critical time. Through an analysis of White House memoranda, speeches, telephone conversations and recorded discussions as well as secondary sources, this study explores Robert Kennedy’s role in key events of the civil rights movement, which include the Freedom Rides in 1961, the Ole Miss crisis in 1962 and the Birmingham campaign and March on Washington in 1963. The combined efforts of the Kennedys and these leaders helped change the atmosphere in the nation to one of acceptance and opportunity for African Americans and other minorities.

Die Monster von Templeton

Roman

Author: Lauren Groff

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406625290

Category: Fiction

Page: 507

View: 7131

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Wilhelmina, genannt Willie, kehrt in ihre heimatliche Kleinstadt zurück, in der man gerade ein echtes Ungeheuer aus dem See gezogen hat. Und sie hat eine Frage: Wer von den vier Exliebhabern ihrer Mutter ist eigentlich ihr Vater? Voller Spannung und Zauber erzählt der Roman von einer Suche, die mehr enthüllt, als Willie lieb ist; und davon, wie sich die Geheimnisse einer Familie in einer einzigen Stadt manifestieren. «Ich war traurig, als das Ende des Romans in Sicht kam – einen größeren Erfolg kann man nicht erzielen.» (Stephen King)