Forensic Evidence in Court

Evaluation and Scientific Opinion

Author: Craig D. Adam

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119054419

Category: Law

Page: 336

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The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.

Evidence

Author: Andrew Choo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198806841

Category: Evidence (Law)

Page: 456

View: 2343

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Choo's Evidence provides students with a lucid account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales, whilst also exploring the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. This clear and engaging text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a fascinating mix of critical and thought-provoking analysis for students and practitioners alike. Where appropriate the author draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. Also, thorough footnoting and further reading lists provide valuable signposting to a wealth of additional sources.

Forensic Anthropology

Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis

Author: C. Clifford Boyd, Jr.,Donna C. Boyd

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119226406

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 8072

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Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the “Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology” symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309121949

Category: Science

Page: 272

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In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.

Forensic Science and Law

Investigative Applications in Criminal, Civil and Family Justice

Author: Cyril H. Wecht,John T. Rago

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420058118

Category: Law

Page: 728

View: 5677

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Forensic science has undergone dramatic progress in recent years, including in the areas of DNA collection and analysis and the reconstruction of crime scenes. However, too few professionals are equipped with the knowledge necessary to fully apply the potential of science in civil, criminal, and family legal matters. Featuring contributions from renowned experts in the forensic, scientific, and legal professions, Forensic Science and Law: Investigative Applications in Criminal, Civil, and Family Justice communicates the wide range of methods and approaches used for achieving justice in these circumstances. A solid grounding in the underlying principles of our legal system provides a context for understanding how these methods are applied. The book brings together the words and thoughts of diverse professionals whose common goal is to uncover the truth. About the editors... Cyril H. Wecht, M.D., J.D., is actively involved as a medical-legal and forensic science consultant, author, and lecturer. Currently coroner of Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, he is certified by the American Board of Pathology in anatomic, clinical, and forensic pathology and is a Fellow of the College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Dr. Wecht is a Clinical Professor at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Graduate School of Public Health, an Adjunct Professor at Duquesne University Schools of Law, Pharmacy and Health Services, and a Distinguished Professor at Carlow University. He is a past president of both the American College of Legal Medicine and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Dr. Wecht is the author of more than 500 professional publications and has appeared as a guest on numerous national television and radio talk shows. John T. Rago, J.D., is Assistant Professor of Law at Duquesne University School of Law and the Director of both The Cyril H. Wecht Institute of Forensic Science and Law and the Law School’s Post-conviction DNA Project. He teaches criminal law and procedure to law students and graduate courses on wrongful convictions, foundations in American law and constitutional criminal procedure to students in the university’s Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences. Professor Rago also serves as an appointed member to the Innocence Project’s Policy Group of the Cardozo School of Law in New York. He is admitted to practice before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the United States Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania.

Manual of Forensic Odontology, Fourth Edition

Author: Edward E. Herschaft

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466500573

Category: Law

Page: 438

View: 4784

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The most exhaustive book on forensic dentistry, the fourth edition of this volume covers the latest advances in the field, including regulations affecting forensic dental practice and procedures in light of the Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act, updated ABFO guidelines, and new digital radiographic and photographic developments. The book also discusses computer-assisted record management, multiple fatality incident preparedness, and Disaster Mortuary Operation Response Team in a post-9/11, tsunami, and Hurricane Katrina world.

Handbook of Forensic Mental Health with Victims and Offenders

Assessment, Treatment, and Research

Author: David W. Springer, PhD, LCSW,Albert R. Roberts, DSW, PhD, BCETS, DACFE

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780826101136

Category: Psychology

Page: 640

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Designated a Doody's Core Title! Together for the first time; all your forensic social work best practice needs in one volume! "...a vitally important addition to this emerging and essential body of knowledge. This compelling publication places between two covers a broad collection of informative, original essays on core issues in forensic social work. This engaging volume offers readers keen insights into forensic practice related to child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, suicide, psychiatric care and mental illness, juvenile justice, adult corrections, addictions, trauma, and restorative justice." --from the foreword by Frederic G. Reamer, School of Social Work, Rhode Island College From expert testimony advice to treating HIV-positive incarcerated women, this handbook contains the most current research and tested field practices for child welfare through adulthood in the civil and criminal system. Encompassing a wide range of treatments, roles, specialized practices, research, and diagnoses, the Handbook of Forensic Mental Health With Victims and Offenders will guide practicing professionals through the forensic social work issues they encounter on a daily basis, such as: Prevention of prisoners' sudden deaths Expert witness testimony in child welfare and women battering Treatment of dually diagnosed adolescents The overrepresentation of African-Americans incarcerated for juvenile delinquency Jail mental health services for adults Drug courts and PTSD in inmates with substance abuse histories Recidivism prevention Basic tasks in post-trauma intervention with victims and offenders Culture and gender considerations in restorative justice Edited by Dr. Albert R. Roberts and Dr. David W. Springer, with contributions by leaders in the field, this handbook should top the list of must-have publications for all forensic social workers.

Introduction to Forensic Psychology

Research and Application

Author: Curt R. Bartol,Anne M. Bartol

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 141295830X

Category: Psychology

Page: 555

View: 5637

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While students most often associate forensic psychology with criminal profiling, crime scene investigations, and serial murder, the Second Edition of Introduction to Forensic Psychology covers the many others areas where psychology has played a significant role in providing research knowledge to the civil and criminal justice systems. Practical applications and case law are discussed along with a summary of contemporary research and practice across a broad spectrum of topics. New to the Second Edition: - More contemporary developmental and biological material in criminal behaviour sections - Includes more on the relationship between mental disorders and crime and violence. - More examples throughout the text, with a case at the beginning of each chapter - Now covers topics such as: the death penalty, restorative justice, civil forensic issues, arson and typologies of juvenile firesetters, and eyewitness identification and discrimination - New learning objectives at beginning of each chapter, review questions at the ends of each chapter, a list of key concepts defined, chapter summaries, boxes - More visually appealing with 2-colour page design: improved design of figures and tables.

Forensic Investigation of Clandestine Laboratories

Author: Donnell R. Christian, Jr.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849312274

Category: Law

Page: 392

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Clandestine lab operators are not the mad scientists whose genius keeps them pent up in the laboratory contemplating elaborate formulas and mixing exotic chemicals. In fact, their equipment is usually simple, their chemicals household products, and their education basic. Most of the time the elements at the scene are perfectly legal to sell and own. It is only in the combination of all these elements that the lab becomes the scene of a criminal operation. Forensic Investigation of Clandestine Laboratories guides you, step-by-step, through the process of recognizing these illegal manufacturing operations. Then it shows you how to prove it in the courtroom. In non-technical language this book details: How to recognize a clandestine lab How to process the site of a clandestine lab How to analyze evidence in the examination laboratory What to derive from the physical evidence How to present the evidence in court The identification and investigation of a clandestine lab, and the successful prosecution of the perpetrators, is a team effort. A collaboration of law enforcement, forensic experts, scientists, and criminal prosecutors is required to present a case that definitively demonstrates how a group of items with legitimate uses are being used to manufacture an illegal controlled substance. Providing an understanding of how the pieces of the clandestine lab puzzle fit together, this book outlines the steps needed to identify and shut down these operations, as well as successfully prosecute the perpetrators.

Speaker Classification I

Fundamentals, Features, and Methods

Author: Christian Müller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540741860

Category: Computers

Page: 355

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This volume and its companion volume LNAI 4441 constitute a state-of-the-art survey in the field of speaker classification. Together they address such intriguing issues as how speaker characteristics are manifested in voice and speaking behavior. The nineteen contributions in this volume are organized into topical sections covering fundamentals, characteristics, applications, methods, and evaluation.

Forensic Nursing Science - E-Book

Author: Virginia A. Lynch,Janet Barber Duval

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323066380

Category: Medical

Page: 704

View: 1808

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Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.

Forensic Psychiatry, An Issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - E-Book

Author: William Bernet,Bradley W. Freeman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455711993

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 5813

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This issue provides a unique and valuable perspective on forensic matters in child and adolescent psychiatry, with an approach that adds new thinking to the discussion, rather than rehashing known facts. The issue is divided into several sections: juvenile offenders, family law/custody and visitation, child maltreatment, personal injury law suits, forensic issues in clinical child and adolescent psychiatry, and training in child and adolescent psychiatry. A wide range of topics are explored within each section. All articles are geared toward child psychiatrists in clinical practice, providing practical information in this very important area of study.

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Consultation in Hospitals, Schools, and Courts

Author: Gregory K. Fritz

Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub

ISBN: 9780880484183

Category: Medical

Page: 316

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In this new book, leading experts in the field of child and adolescent consultation-liaison psychiatry present a practical guide for mental health professionals consulting in hospitals, schools, and the juvenile justice system. It is designed to aid the psychiatrist or psychologist in becoming an effective case consultant, as well as a practical-minded educator sought by mental health professionals in other disciplines. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Consultation in Hospitals, Schools, and Courts is comprised of three sections, each covering the following subject areas: * Characteristics of each system and the professionals who work in that setting* The logistics of consultation* Typical problems encountered* Suggested interventions

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science

Author: Robin T. Bowen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420088960

Category: Law

Page: 217

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While we would like to believe that forensic science professionals are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have moral compasses as varied as those of any individual you may know. They confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the field and highlights the complicated nature of ethical decision-making in this complex arena. Ethics in the courtroom and the lab Written by one of the leading researchers in forensic ethics, the book provides data-driven examples of the behaviors – both good and bad – that shape the forensic profession. It provides real examples of ethical behavior combined with research to demonstrate how ethics works (and sometimes does not) in this richly interesting scientific field. The book begins by exploring philosophical approaches related to ethical decision-making. It examines the ethics of the criminal justice culture, ethical issues in the courtroom, and ethics in science and research. Next, the book shifts to a discussion of unethical behavior, and provides actual case studies spotlighting ethical breaches, including the O.J. Simpson case and other reported examples. Ethics codes in various organizations The book concludes with a discussion of the code of ethics. Appendices discuss research data on ethics in forensic science and provide ethics codes from various forensic science organizations. Offering a lively source of debate for professionals and academics, this volume provides a window on a topic that is frequently fraught with uncertainty. Robin T. Bowen was interviewed recently for Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Forensic Speaker Recognition

Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

Author: Amy Neustein,Hemant A. Patil

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461402633

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 540

View: 5233

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Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal processing; and their work represents such diverse countries as Switzerland, Sweden, Italy, France, Japan, India and the United States. Forensic Speaker Recognition is a useful book for forensic speech scientists, speech signal processing experts, speech system developers, criminal prosecutors and counter-terrorism intelligence officers and agents.

Handbook of Digital and Multimedia Forensic Evidence

Author: John J. Barbara

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1597455776

Category: Social Science

Page: 139

View: 7874

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This volume presents an overview of computer forensics perfect for beginners. A distinguished group of specialist authors have crafted chapters rich with detail yet accessible for readers who are not experts in the field. Tying together topics as diverse as applicable laws on search and seizure, investigating cybercrime, and preparation for courtroom testimony, Handbook of Digital and Multimedia Evidence is an ideal overall reference for this multi-faceted discipline.

Psychological Science in the Courtroom

Consensus and Controversy

Author: Jennifer L. Skeem,Kevin S. Douglas,Scott O. Lilienfeld

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606233912

Category: Psychology

Page: 418

View: 5492

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This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.

Stories About Science in Law

Literary and Historical Images of Acquired Expertise

Author: Professor David S Caudill

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409497569

Category: Law

Page: 164

View: 8320

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Presenting examples of how literary accounts can provide a supplement to our understanding of science in law, this book challenges the view that law and science are completely different. It focuses on stories which explore the relationship between law and science, especially cultural images of science that prevail in legal contexts. Contrasting with other studies of the transfer and construction of expertise in legal settings, this book considers the intersection of three interdisciplinary projects: law and science, law and literature, and literature and science. Looking at the appropriation of scientific expertise into law from these perspectives, this book presents an original introduction into how we can gain insight into the use of science in the courtroom and in policy and regulatory settings through literary sources.

Parenting Plan Evaluations

Applied Research for the Family Court

Author: Nancy Olesen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199396582

Category: Children of divorced parents

Page: 608

View: 1973

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More so than in any other form of forensic evaluation, mental health professionals who conduct parenting plan evaluations must have an understanding of the most current evidence in the areas of child development, optimal parenting plans across various populations, behavioral psychology, family violence, and legal issues to inform their opinions. In addition, family law judges and legal professionals require the best available evidence to support their decisions and positions. Parenting Plan Evaluations has become the go-to source for the most current empirical evidence in the field of child custody disputes. Fully updated in this Second Edition, the volume continues its focus on translating and implementing research associated with the most important topics within the family court. It presents an organized and in-depth analysis of the latest research and offers specific recommendations for applying these findings to the issues in child custody disputes. Written by international experts in the field, chapters cover the most important and complex issues that arise in family court, such as attachment and overnight timesharing with very young children, co-parenting children with chronic medical conditions and developmental disorders, domestic violence during separation and divorce, alienation, gay and lesbian co-parents, and relocation, among others. This volume assists forensic mental health professionals to proffer empirically based opinions, conclusions, and recommendations and assists family law judges and attorneys in evaluating the reliability of the information provided to the courts by mental health professionals in their reports and testimony. Not just for forensic evaluators, Parenting Plan Evaluations is a must-read for legal practitioners, family law judges and attorneys, and other professionals seeking to understand more about the science behind parenting plan evaluations.

Handbook of Forensic Science

Author: Jim Fraser,Robin Williams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134028709

Category: Law

Page: 696

View: 1528

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Forensic science has become increasingly important within contemporary criminal justice, from criminal investigation through to courtroom deliberations, and an increasing number of agencies and individuals are having to engage with its contribution to contemporary justice. This Handbook aims to provide an authoritative map of the landscape of forensic science within the criminal justice system of the UK. It sets out the essential features of the subject, covering the disciplinary, technological, organizational and legislative resources that are brought together to make up contemporary forensic science practice. It is the first full-length publication which reviews forensic science in a wider political, economic, social, technological and legal context, identifying emerging themes on the current status and potential future of forensic science as part of the criminal justice system. With contributions from many of the leading authorities in the field it will be essential reading for both students and practitioners.