Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas

Author: Thomas T. Veblen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387954554

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 508

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This volume brings together research conducted in western North and South America, areas of a great deal of collaborative work on the influence of people and climate change on fire regimes. It gives a synthetic overview of methods, data and simulation models for evaluating fire regime processes in forests, shrublands and woodlands and assembles case studies of fire, climate and land use histories. The unique approach of this book gives researchers the benefits of a north-south comparison as well as the integration of paleoecological histories, current ecosystem dynamics and modeling of future changes.

Repeat Photography

Methods and Applications in the Natural Sciences

Author: Robert H. Webb

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781610910064

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 3506

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First developed in the 1880s as a way to monitor glaciers in Europe, repeat photography —the practice of taking photographs at different points in times from the same physical vantage point—remains an essential and cost-effective technique for scientists and researchers working to track and study landscape change. This volume explores the technical and geographic scope of this important technique, focusing particularly on the intertwined influences of climatic variation and land-use practices in sculpting landscapes. Contributors offer a broad-perspective review of the state-of-the-art of repeat photography, withtwenty-three chapters written by researchers around the globe who have made use of repeat photography in their work. Topics addressed include • the history of repeat photography • techniques for creating and analyzing repeat photographs • applications in the geosciences • applications in population ecology • applications in ecosystem change • cultural applications Repeat Photography demonstrates the wide range of potential applications, examines new techniques for acquiring data from repeat photography, and clearly shows that repeat photography remains a valuable and efficient means of monitoring change in both developed and developing regions. Overone hundredsets of photographs, includingthirty-twopages of color photos, serve as examples. Recent concerns about climate change and its effects on natural landscapes, combined with ongoing concerns about land-use practices, make this state-of-the-art review a timely contribution to the literature.

Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management

Author: John A. Wiens,Gregory D. Hayward,Hugh D, Safford,Catherine Giffen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118329759

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 5944

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In North America, concepts of Historical Range of Variability are being employed in land-management planning for properties of private organizations and multiple government agencies. The National Park Service, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and The Nature Conservancy all include elements of historical ecology in their planning processes. Similar approaches are part of land management and conservation in Europe and Australia. Each of these user groups must struggle with the added complication of rapid climate change, rapid land-use change, and technical issues in order to employ historical ecology effectively. Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management explores the utility of historical ecology in a management and conservation context and the development of concepts related to understanding future ranges of variability. It provides guidance and insights to all those entrusted with managing and conserving natural resources: land-use planners, ecologists, fire scientists, natural resource policy makers, conservation biologists, refuge and preserve managers, and field practitioners. The book will be particularly timely as science-based management is once again emphasized in United States federal land management and as an understanding of the potential effects of climate change becomes more widespread among resource managers. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/wiens/historicalenvironmentalvariation.

A Great Aridness

Climate Change and the Future of the American Southwest

Author: William deBuys

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199912246

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7317

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With its soaring azure sky and stark landscapes, the American Southwest is one of the most hauntingly beautiful regions on earth. Yet staggering population growth, combined with the intensifying effects of climate change, is driving the oasis-based society close to the brink of a Dust-Bowl-scale catastrophe. In A Great Aridness, William deBuys paints a compelling picture of what the Southwest might look like when the heat turns up and the water runs out. This semi-arid land, vulnerable to water shortages, rising temperatures, wildfires, and a host of other environmental challenges, is poised to bear the heaviest consequences of global environmental change in the United States. Examining interrelated factors such as vanishing wildlife, forest die backs, and the over-allocation of the already stressed Colorado River--upon which nearly 30 million people depend--the author narrates the landscape's history--and future. He tells the inspiring stories of the climatologists and others who are helping untangle the complex, interlocking causes and effects of global warming. And while the fate of this region may seem at first blush to be of merely local interest, what happens in the Southwest, deBuys suggests, will provide a glimpse of what other mid-latitude arid lands worldwide--the Mediterranean Basin, southern Africa, and the Middle East--will experience in the coming years. Written with an elegance that recalls the prose of John McPhee and Wallace Stegner, A Great Aridness offers an unflinching look at the dramatic effects of climate change occurring right now in our own backyard.

Landslide Ecology

Author: Lawrence R. Walker,Aaron B. Shiels

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521190525

Category: Nature

Page: 314

View: 5782

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Landslides are dangerous, fascinating phenomena: understanding their biological and ecological aspects is essential for achieving slope stability and habitat restoration.

How Landscapes Change

Human Disturbance and Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas

Author: Gay A. Bradshaw,Pablo Marquet

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540436973

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 9855

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North and South America share similar human and ecological histories and, increasingly, economic and social linkages. As such, issues of ecosystem functions and disruptions form a common thread among these cultures. This volume synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, such as ecology, anthropology, economy, and conservation biology. The chief goal is to gain an understanding of how human and ecological processes interact to affect ecosystem functions and species in the Americas. Throughout the text the emphasis is placed on habitat fragmentation. At the same time, the book provides an overview of current theory, methods, and approaches used in the analysis of ecosystem disruptions and fragmentation.

The Landscape Ecology of Fire

Author: Donald McKenzie,Carol Miller,Donald A. Falk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400703018

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 9610

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Global warming is expected to change fire regimes, likely increasing the severity and extent of wildfires in many ecosystems around the world. What will be the landscape-scale effects of these altered fire regimes? Within what theoretical contexts can we accurately assess these effects? We explore the possible effects of altered fire regimes on landscape patch dynamics, dominant species (tree, shrub, or herbaceous) and succession, sensitive and invasive plant and animal species and communities, and ecosystem function. Ultimately, we must consider the human dimension: what are the policy and management implications of increased fire disturbance, and what are the implications for human communities?

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann Georg Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364259171X

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 1488

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Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

The Quaternary Period in the United States

Author: A.R. Gillespie,S.C. Porter,B.F. Atwater

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080474098

Category: Science

Page: 594

View: 5487

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This book reviews advances in understanding of the past ca. two million years of Earth history - the Quaternary Period - in the United States. It begins with sections on ice and water - as glaciers, permafrost, oceans, rivers, lakes, and aquifers. Six chapters are devoted to the high-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets, to mountain glaciations of the western United States, and to permafrost studies. Other chapters discuss ice-age lakes, caves, sea-level fluctuations, and riverine landscapes. With a chapter on landscape evolution models, the book turns to essays on geologic processes. Two chapters discuss soils and their responses to climate, and wind-blown sediments. Two more describe volcanoes and earthquakes, and the use of Quaternary geology to understand the hazards they pose. The next part of the book is on plants and animals. Five chapters consider the Quaternary history of vegetation in the United States. Other chapters treat forcing functions and vegetation response at different spatial and temporal scales, the role of fire as a catalyst of vegetation change during rapid climate shifts, and the use of tree rings in inferring age and past hydroclimatic conditions. Three chapters address vertebrate paleontology and the extinctions of large mammals at the end of the last glaciation, beetle assemblages and the inferences they permit about past conditions, and the peopling of North America. A final chapter addresses the numerical modeling of Quaternary climates, and the role paleoclimatic studies and climatic modeling has in predicting future response of the Earth's climate system to the changes we have wrought.

Climate and Land Degradation

Author: Mannava V.K. Sivakumar,Ndegwa Ndiang'ui

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540724389

Category: Science

Page: 623

View: 820

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Based on an International Workshop held in Arusha, Tanzania, this book presents state-of-the-art papers, real world applications, and innovative techniques for combating land degradation. It offers recommendations for effectively using weather and climate information for sustainable land management practices.

The New Normal

The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate

Author: University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center

Publisher: University of Regina Press

ISBN: 9780889772311

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 6172

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The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate is a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of climate change in the prairie provinces, the impacts on natural resources, communities, human health and sectors of the economy, and the adaptation options that are available for alleviating adverse impacts and taking advantage of new opportunities provided by a warmer climate.

Ecological Climatology

Concepts and Applications

Author: Gordon B. Bonan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521804769

Category: Nature

Page: 678

View: 5065

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Climate change and land-use are typically seen as independent environmental research problems. The causes of climate change are the venue of atmospheric scientists who describe climate change in light of various forcings: greenhouse gases, volcanic eruptions, and oceanic circulation. Land-use is the venue of ecologists, who are concerned with how, for example, deforestation affects biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles. This book integrates these two lines of study to present the idea that how people use land and alter the natural vegetation cover is also a significant feedback within the climate system.

Tropical Fire Ecology

Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics

Author: Mark Cochrane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540773819

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 654

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This book is a global synthesis of fire in tropical ecosystems. In detailing the fire situations of 17 tropical systems, it discusses all relevant subjects ranging from causes of fire to human land use and climate change to long range implications.

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Resource Systems

Author: Kenneth D. Frederick,Norman J. Rosenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401102074

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 2938

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This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.

Plant Genetic Resources of Legumes in the Mediterranean

Author: Nigel Maxted,Sarita Jane Bennett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792367079

Category: Nature

Page: 378

View: 4404

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Genetic erosion, that is, the loss of native plant and genetic diversity has been exponential from the Mediterranean Basin through the Twentieth century. This careless eradication of species and genetic diversity as a result of human activities from a 'hot-spot' of diversity threatens sustainable agriculture and food security for the temperate regions of the world. Since the early 1900s there has been a largely ad hoc movement to halt the loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, both highlight the need to improve conservation methodologies and enhance utilisation techniques. It has been argued that the most important component of biodiversity is the genetic diversity of crop and forage species used to feed humans and livestock. These cultivated and related wild species provides the raw material for further selection and improvement. Leguminosae species are of major economic importance (peas, chickpeas, lentils and faba beans, as well as numerous forage species) and provide a particularly rich source of protein for human and animal foods. Their distribution is concentrated in the Mediterranean region and therefore the improvement of their conservation and use in the region is critical. This text is designed to help ensure an adequate breadth of legume diversity is conserved and to help maximise the use of that conserved diversity. The subjects of conservation and use of legume diversity, the Mediterranean ecosystem and taxonomy of legumes are introduced. Generic reviews of the taxonomy, centre of diversity, ecogeographic distribution, genetic diversity distribution, conservation status, conservation gaps and future research needs are provided, along with a discussion of the importance of rhizobia to the maintenance of legume diversity. Current ex situ and in situ conservation activities as well current legume uses are reviewed. In conclusion future priorities for ex situ and in situ plant genetic conservation and use of Mediterranean legumes are highlighted. All contributors look forward rather than simply reviewing past and current activities and therefore it is hoped that the identification of genetic erosion, location of taxonomic and genetic diversity and promotion of more efficient utilisation of conserved material will be enhanced.

21st Century Geography

Author: Joseph P. Stoltman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 141297464X

Category: Science

Page: 883

View: 3038

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This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.

Plant Life of Kentucky

An Illustrated Guide to the Vascular Flora

Author: Ronald L. Jones

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813137209

Category: Nature

Page: 856

View: 9652

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Plant Life of Kentucky is the first comprehensive guide to all the ferns, flowering herbs, and woody plants of the state. This long-awaited work provides identification keys for Kentucky's 2,600 native and naturalized vascular plants, with notes on wildlife/human uses, poisonous plants, and medicinal herbs. The common name, flowering period, habitat, distribution, rarity, and wetland status are given for each species, and about 80 percent are illustrated with line drawings. The inclusion of 250 additional species from outside the state (these species are "to be expected" in Kentucky) broadens the regional coverage, and most plants occurring from northern Alabama to southern Ohio to the Mississippi River (an area of wide similarity in flora) are examined, including nearly all the plants of western and central Tennessee. The author also describes prehistoric and historical changes in the flora, natural regions and plant communities, significant botanists, current threats to plant life, and a plan for future studies. Plant Life of Kentucky is intended as a research tool for professionals in biology and related fields, and as a resource for students, amateur naturalists, and others interested in understanding and preserving our rich botanical heritage.

Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

Author: Uli M. Huber,Harald K.M. Bugmann,Mel A. Reasoner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140203508X

Category: Science

Page: 652

View: 3370

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This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.

Our Earth's Changing Land

An Encyclopedia of Land-use And Land-cover Change

Author: Helmut Geist

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313327049

Category: Architecture

Page: 792

View: 9972

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This encyclopedia provides a state-of-the-art understanding of how land has changed over that last 300 years.