Finding Philosophy in Social Science

Author: Mario Bunge,Professor Mario Bunge

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300066067

Category: Social Science

Page: 432

View: 2839

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In a highly critical appraisal of rational choice theories, Bunge insists that these models provide no solid substantive theory of society, nor do they help guide rational action. He offers ten criteria by which to evaluate philosophies of social science and proposes novel solutions to social science's methodological and philosophical problems.

Die Zukunft der Policy-Forschung

Theorien, Methoden, Anwendungen

Author: Frank Janning,Katrin Toens

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531907743

Category: Political Science

Page: 332

View: 4038

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Die Policy-Forschung hat sich durch theoriegeleitete Politikfeldanalysen und durch die vergleichende Staatstätigkeitsforschung bedeutend weiterentwickelt und ein eigenständiges Set an Methoden und Forschungsansätzen hervorgebracht. Zunehmend ist sie jedoch auch besonderen Herausforderungen ausgesetzt: In der Politikfeldanalyse stehen sich häufig quantitative und qualitative Forschungsansätze sowie erklärende und verstehende Wissenschaftskonzeptionen diametral gegenüber, eine Verbindung oder ein Methoden-Mix wird nur selten praktiziert. Außerdem ist die Forschung stark an statischen Strukturbeschreibungen orientiert und geht kaum auf die Entstehung und Verarbeitung von Programminnovationen sowie auf sequentielle Reformprozesse ein. Die Staatstätigkeitsforschung hat wegweisende Erkenntnisse über die Determinanten von nationalen Politikentwicklungen geliefert. Weniger Berücksichtigung findet bisher aber der Tatbestand einer transnationalen bzw. sektoralen Verflechtung. In Deutschland besitzt die Policy-Analyse nur einen relativ geringen Stellenwert als wissenschaftliche Politikberatung. Woran orientieren sich aber ihre wissenschaftlichen Ziele, wenn sie über eine bloße Wissensvermehrung hinausgelangen will? Die Beiträge des vorliegenden Bandes versuchen für diese Herausforderungen und Fragestellungen Antworten zu formulieren.

Die Logik mechanismischer Erklärungen

Author: Michael Schmid

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 353190115X

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

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Die Beantwortung der beiden Fragen, ob die Sozialwissenschaften im Allgemeinen und die Soziologie im Besonderen wissenschaftslogisch verteidigungsfähige Erklärungen zu liefern vermögen und welcher Logik entsprechende Argumente folgen sollten, ist noch immer offen und umstritten. Das Buch bietet einen Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion und plädiert für eine erklärende Soziologie.

Social Science Under Debate

A Philosophical Perspective

Author: Mario Bunge

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780802083579

Category: Philosophy

Page: 538

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Bunge contends that social science research has fallen prey to a postmodern fascination with irrationalism and relativism. He urges social scientists to re-examine the philosophy and the methodology at the base of their discipline.

The Power of Argumentation

Author: Enrique Suárez Iñiguez

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9042022876

Category: Philosophy

Page: 217

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This book is a collection of essays on the philosophy of Karl Popper written by some outstanding contributors from all the world around. Most of them are Popperians, some were Sir Karl's students in his famous seminar at the London School of Economics and his research assistants. All have written books or papers on Popper's philosophy and are notable professors at their universities. So, from a well-acquainted view of Poppers philosophy the book deals with present day philosophical problems and offers interesting interpretations. The first part is devoted to political philosophy, and the second to philosophy of science. The volume is of interest for all those concerned not only in Popper's philosophy but also in some the main scientific and political problems of today.

From a Scientific Point of View

Reasoning and Evidence Beat Improvisation across Fields

Author: Mario Bunge

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1527514633

Category: Science

Page: 169

View: 4791

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This book deals with the scientific viewpoint, which is illustrated here through a number of topical cases in modern science, from gravitational waves to mental disorders to social policies. The scientific perspective involves rationality, realism, and reism – the thesis that the universe is composed of concrete things like atoms, force fields, people, and social organizations. The book shows that the scientific worldview underlies all current scientific and technological research projects. It also claims that any subject involving knowledge can be approached scientifically, and contends that the scientific viewpoint can trump both dogma and improvisation – the standbys of amateurs and demagogues.

Sociological Realism

Author: Andrea Maccarini,Emmanuele Morandi,Riccardo Prandini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136633189

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

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Sociological Realism presents a clear and updated discussion of the main tenets and issues of social theory, written by some of the top scholars within the critical realist and relational approach. It connects such approaches systematically to other strands of thought that are central in contemporary sociology, like systems theory and rational choice theory. Divided into three parts, social ontology, sociological theory, and methodology, each part includes a systematic presentation, a comment, and a wider discussion by the editors, thereby taking on the form of a dialogue among experts. This book is a uniquely blended and consistent conversation showing the convergence of European social theory on a critical realist and relational way of thinking. This volume is extremely important both for teaching purposes and for all those scholars who wish to get a fresh perspective on some deep dynamics of contemporary sociology.

Artifacts and Ideas

Essays in Archaeology

Author: Bruce G. Trigger

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412817523

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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"... a fine narrative of the development of Trigger's metaphysics in his archaeological and historical research. It is accessible, clearly written, and worth close reading."--Journal of Field Archaeology Prehistoric archaeologists cannot observe their human subjects nor can they directly access their subjects' ideas. Both must be inferred from the remnants of the material objects they made and used. In recent decades this incontrovertible fact has encouraged partisan approaches to the history and method of archaeology. An empirical discipline emphasizing data, classification, and chronology has given way to a behaviorist approach that interprets finds as products of ecologically adaptive strategies, and to a postmodern alternative that relies on an idealist, cultural-relativist epistemology based on belief and cultural traditions. In Artifacts and Ideas, Bruce G. Trigger challenges all partisan versions of recent developments in archaeology, while remaining committed to understanding the past from a social science perspective. Over 30 years, Trigger has addressed fundamental epistemological issues, and opposed the influence of narrow theoretical and ideological commitments on archaeological interpretation since the 1960s. Trigger encourages a relativistic understanding of archaeological interpretation. Yet as post-processual archaeology, influenced by postmodernism, became increasingly influential, Trigger countered nihilistic subjectivism by laying greater emphasis on how in the long run the constraints of evidence could be expected to produce a more comprehensive and objective understanding of the past. In recent years Trigger has argued that while all human behavior is culturally mediated, the capacity for such mediation has evolved as a flexible and highly efficient means by which humans adapt to a world that exists independently of their will. Trigger agrees that a complete understanding of what has shaped the archaeological record requires knowledge both of past beliefs and of human behavior. He knows also that one must understand humans as organisms with biologically grounded drives, emotions, and means of understanding. Likewise, even in the absence of data supplied in a linguistic format by texts and oral traditions, at least some of the more ecologically adaptive forms of human behavior and some general patterns of belief that display cross-cultural uniformity will be susceptible to archaeological analysis. Advocating a realist epistemology and a materialist ontology, Artifacts and Ideas offers an illuminating guide to the present state of the discipline as well as to how archaeology can best achieve its goals. Bruce G. Trigger is James McGill Professor in the department of anthropology at McGill University. His numerous books include The Children of Aataentsic: A History of the Huron People to 1660, A History of Archaeological Thought, and Sociocultural Evolution.

The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry

Author: Thomas A. Schwandt

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412909279

Category: Social Science

Page: 322

View: 937

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Now with 70 additional terms as well as a Reader′s Guide, key references have been updated and several terms and phrases from previous editions have been reorganized and expanded. Students and teachers will find this book a very useful resource for navigating various perspectives on qualitative inquiry and as a starting point for launching their own investigations into the issues covered in this guide.

Philosophy in Crisis

The Need for Reconstruction

Author: Mario Bunge

Publisher: Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 245

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Is philosophy dead? Some philosophers have declared it to be so, and judging by some of the mental acrobatics now fashionable in postmodernist circles a reasonable person might have to agree. Though recognizing the moribund state of current academic philosophy, Mario Bunge feels that this is a crisis from which the discipline can and will recover. To overcome the impasse Bunge argues that it is necessary to reconstruct philosophy by building a philosophical system that addresses real-world problems of everyday people in a clear, comprehensible fashion. The new system must be exact and compatible with contemporary science and technology. Above all, it should shun purely academic problems. This book offers glimpses of such a system while avoiding technical jargon unfamiliar to the lay reader. It is thus accessible to the average educated reader interested in such perennial philosophical concerns as What is matter?, What is mind?, What is the nature of society?, Are there limits to our knowledge?, What are the criteria for distinguishing genuine science from pseudoscience?, and How should human rights be balanced with moral obligations? These questions will always be of interest to thinking human beings, says Bunge, and philosophy, rather than becoming a fruitless, self-referential academic game, should be the main intellectual tool for exploring and clarifying such all important issues.

Philosophische Grundlagen der Biologie

Author: Martin Mahner,Mario Bunge

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642572316

Category: Science

Page: 402

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In den letzten drei Jahrzehnten des 20. Jahrhunderts ist die Philosophie der Biologie aus dem Schatten der physikorientierten Wissenschaftsphilosophie herausgetreten und hat sich als respektabler und blühender Zweig der Wissenschaftsphilosophie etabliert. In ihrem Buch entwickeln die Autoren eine neue Wissenschaftsphilosophie der Biologie auf einer konsequent realistischen und emergentistisch-materialistischen Grundlage. Sie stellen ein strenges, einheitliches und wissenschaftsorientiertes philosophisches Fundament vor, das es ihnen ermöglicht, viele philosophische und Grundlagenfragen der Biowissenschaften zu analysieren und zu klären. Dieses Buch möchte Biologen, Philosophen und alle Interessierten dazu anregen, neu über die Biophilosophie nachzudenken. Mit einem Geleitwort von Gerhard Vollmer.

Naturalistische Hermeneutik

Author: Chrysostomos Mantzavinos

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161488689

Category: Philosophy

Page: 158

View: 5635

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English summary: C. Matzavinos advocates the unity of the scientific method and defends it against the claim to autonomy made by the human sciences. He shows how materials that are 'meaningful', more specifically human actions and texts, can be adequately dealt with by the hypothetico-deductive method, the standard method used in the natural sciences. The hermeneutic method is not an alternative method aimed at the understanding and the interpretation of human actions and texts, but it is the same as the hypothetico-deductive method applied to meaningful materials. The central thesis is, thus, that there is no fundamental methodological difference between natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. The English edition of this work was published by Cambridge University Press. German description: C. Mantzavinos stellt dem Autonomieanspruch der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften die These der Einheit der wissenschaftlichen Methode gegenuber. Er zeigt, wie Material, das 'sinnhaft' ist, vor allem menschliche Handlungen und Texte, mit Hilfe der hypothetisch-deduktiven Methode - der gangigen Methode der Naturwissenschaften - erfasst werden kann. Die hermeneutische Methode ist nichts anders als die auf sinnhaftes Material angewendete hypothetisch-deduktive Methode. Sowohl menschliche Handlungen im allgemeinen als auch Ergebnisse solcher Handlungen, vor allem Texte, sind, obwohl sinnhaft, mittels der hypothetisch-deduktiven Methode gut erfassbar. Der Autor zeigt, dass Sinnzusammenhange sehr oft in Wirkungszusammenhange transformierbar sind und daher nomologisch durchleuchtet werden konnen. Auch in denjenigen Fallen, in denen diese Transformation nicht moglich ist, kann man die hypothetisch-deduktive Methode anwenden: Man kann Hypothesen formulieren, die dazu dienen, den entsprechenden Sinnzusammenhang zu rekonstruieren, und dann aufgrund des verfugbaren empirischen Materials uberprufen, welche der angebotenen Hypothesen zutreffend sind. Bei Rekonstruktionen, wie bei der Feststellung von Einzeltatsachen im allgemeinen, fungieren bestimmte singulare deskriptive Aussagen gerade in dem Sinne als Hypothesen, dass man nach Grunden fur ihre Wahrheit sucht. Somit brauchen auch diejenigen Disziplinen, die sich mit wissenschaftlichen Problemen der Rekonstruktion von Sinnzusammenhangen befassen, die Orientierung ihrer Tatigkeit an der Wahrheitsidee nicht zugunsten anderer Ideale und regulativer Ideen zu opfern. Mantzavinos hat eine naturalistische Hermeneutik entwickelt, die in der Lage ist, Sinnprobleme adaquat zu losen. Das Buch ist der wichtigste neuere Beitrag zur Analyse dieser Probleme, den ich bisher gesehen habe. Es ist unentbehrlich fur jedes Seminar uber Probleme der Hermeneutik.Hans Albert, Heidelberg

Sozialtheologie

Theologie, Sozialwissenschaft und der "cultural turn"

Author: Clemens Sedmak

Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften

ISBN: N.A

Category: Religion and culture

Page: 508

View: 6803

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Sozialtheologie ist Theologie nach dem -cultural turn-. Der -cultural turn- ist die erkenntnistheoretische Wende nach der Einsicht, dass Erkenntnistheorie und Kulturtheorie nicht voneinander getrennt werden konnen. Erkenntnistheorie ist Kulturarbeit, Arbeit in und an Kultur. Daher braucht Theologie die Sozialwissenschaft - aber auch die Sozialwissenschaft Theologie. In diesem Buch werden -Experimente eines Dialogs- vorgestellt, Experimente der Begegnung zwischen Theologie und Sozialwissenschaft. -Stumme Theologien- in der sozialen Welt und die -theologia incognita- in den Sozialwissenschaften werden ebenso freigelegt wie die Moglichkeit einer -Option fur die Armen-. An ausgewahlten Disziplinen (Okonomie, Geschichtswissenschaft, Cultural Anthropology) und ausgewahlten Autoren (von Durkheim bis Luhmann) werden diese Themen illustriert und erhartet."

On Symbols and Society

Author: Kenneth Burke,Joseph R. Gusfield

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226080789

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 342

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Kenneth Burke's innovative use of dramatism and dialectical method have made him a powerful critical force in an extraordinary variety of disciplines—education, philosophy, history, psychology, religion, and others. While most widely acclaimed as a literary critic, Burke has elaborated a perspective toward the study of behavior and society that holds immense significance and rich insights for sociologists. This original anthology brings together for the first time Burke's key writings on symbols and social relations to offer social scientists access to Burke's thought. In his superb introductory essay, Joseph R. Gusfield traces the development of Burke's approach to human action and its relationship to other similar sources of theory and ideas in sociology; he discusses both Burke's influence on sociologists and the limits of his perspective. Burke regards literature as a form of human behavior—and human behavior as embedded in language. His lifework represents a profound attempt to understand the implications for human behavior based on the fact that humans are "symbol-using animals." As this volume demonstrates, the work that Burke produced from the 1930s through the 1960s stands as both precursor and contemporary key to recent intellectual movements such as structuralism, symbolic anthropology, phenomenological and interpretive sociology, critical theory, and the renaissance of symbolic interaction.

Beobachter der Moderne

Beiträge zu Niklas Luhmanns "Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft"

Author: Uwe Schimank,Hans-Joachim Giegel

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518292129

Category: Communication

Page: 342

View: 8586

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