Exploring Opportunities in Green Chemistry and Engineering Education

A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309179881

Category: Education

Page: 56

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Going green is a hot topic in both chemistry and chemical engineering. Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green engineering is the development and commercialization of economically feasible industrial processes that reduce the risk to human health and the environment. This book summarizes a workshop convened by the National Research Council to explore the widespread implementation of green chemistry and chemical engineering concepts into undergraduate and graduate education and how to integrate these concepts into the established and developing curricula. Speakers highlighted the most effective educational practices to date and discussed the most promising educational materials and software tools in green chemistry and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities.

Worldwide Trends in Green Chemistry Education

Author: Vânia Zuin,Liliana Mammino

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782625364

Category: Education

Page: 329

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Educating the next generation of chemists about green chemistry issues, such as waste minimisation and clean synthesis, is vital for environmental sustainability. This book enables green issues to be taught from the underlying principles of all chemistry courses rather than in isolation. Chapters contributed by green chemistry experts from across the globe, with experience in teaching at different academic levels, provide a coherent overview of possible approaches to incorporate green chemistry into existing curriculums. Split into three sections, the book first introduces sustainability and green chemistry education , before focussing on high school green chemistry education initiatives and green chemistry education at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Useful laboratory experiments and in-class activities to aid teaching are included. This book is a valuable resource for chemical educators worldwide who wish to integrate green chemistry into chemical education in a systematic and holistic way. It is also of interest to anyone wanting to learn more about the different approaches adopted around the world in sustainability education.

Green Chemical Processes

Developments in Research and Education

Author: Mark Anthony Benvenuto

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110437236

Category: Science

Page: 156

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The "greening" of industry processes - i.e., making them more sustainable - is a popular and often lucrative trend which has seen increased attention in recent years. Green Chemical Processes, the 2nd volume of Green Chemical Processing, covers the hot topic of sustainability in chemistry with a view to education, as well as considering corporate and environmental interests, e.g. in the context of energy production. The diverse team of authors allows for a balance between these different, but interconnected perspectives. The American Chemical Society’s 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are woven throughout this text as well as the series to which this book belongs.

Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry

Author: R. Rajagopal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118677897

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 386

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The global fine and speciality chemicals industry is a vitalsegment within the chemical value chain, catering to a multitude of societal and industrial needs.Regulatory, sustainability and consumer forces have been constantlyshaping the business fundamentals of this industry. Developingvalue creation strategies, which embed economic, environmental andsocial sustainability components, will need a comprehensiveassessment of business, scientific and technological challengesfacing the industry. Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and SpecialityChemicals Industry assesses sustainable value creation optionsagainst the backdrop of global mega trends that are defi ning thepresent and future course of the industry. It discusses innovativestrategies in feedstocks, R&D, technology, manufacturing,resource management and the supply chain as well as thesignificance of the bio-based chemical economy in enablingsustainable value creation in the fine and speciality chemicalsindustry. Topics covered include: • Transformation in the fine and speciality chemicalsbusiness • Sustainable management: evolution, transitions andtools • Research and technology directions • Resource optimization strategies • Bio-based chemicals, specialities and polymers • Sustainable practices in the fine and speciality chemicalsindustry • Sustainable value creation strategies Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and SpecialityChemicals Industry presents a comprehensive overview of strategic options for sustainability management in theglobal fine and speciality chemicals industry. It will be avaluable resource for chemists and chemical engineers involved inthe design and development of economically, environmentally andsocially sustainable practices for the future.

Green Chemistry Education

Changing the Course of Chemistry

Author: Paul T. Anastas,Irvin Jay Levy,Kathryn E. Parent

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: 9780841274471

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 9918

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Green Chemistry - a new approach to designing chemicals and chemical transformations that are beneficial for human health and the environment - is an area that continues to emerge as an important field of study. Practitioners design to be more sustainable the materials, products, and processes that are the basis of our technologically advanced society and economy. Molecular designers are seeing new performance capabilities in the products, new efficiencies in the processes, and achievements in meeting the goals for protecting human health and the environment in a profitable way. Educators have recognized that Green Chemistry principles and practice have not been a part of traditional training in chemistry, and are not part of the skill sets of most practicing chemists. Leaders in Green Chemistry education have developed a wide range of new approaches, courses, tools, and materials that have been introduced and demonstrated in the chemistry curriculum in colleges and universities around the U.S. This ACS Symposium Series Book collects the current research and advances in the field of green chemistry, with an emphasis on providing educators with the knowledge and tools needed to incorporate recent information about this field into the chemistry curriculum. This volume is an outstanding resource for any chemical educator wishing to deepen, broaden, or begin the inclusion of green principles and practices into their teaching or research. Given the current interest in green chemistry, this timely book provides an invaluable snapshot of green chemistry education, highlighting best practices from the first decade of greening the chemistry curriculum.

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

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Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Novel Process Windows

Innovative Gates to Intensified and Sustainable Chemical Processes

Author: Volker Hessel,Dana Kralisch,Norbert Kockmann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527654844

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 344

View: 1040

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This book introduces the concept of novel process windows, focusing on cost improvements, safety, energy and eco-efficiency throughout each step of the process. The first part presents the new reactor and process-related technologies, introducing the potential and benefit analysis. The core of the book details scenarios for unusual parameter sets and the new holistic and systemic approach to processing, while the final part analyses the implications for green and cost-efficient processing. With its practical approach, this is invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, fuels and oils industries.

Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Author: Andrew P. Dicks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439840776

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 7770

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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.

Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil

Author: Mark Crane,Peter Matthiessen,Dawn Stretton Maycock,Graham Merrington,Paul Whitehouse

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439803455

Category: Science

Page: 168

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A balanced, comprehensive overview of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil addresses the selection and prioritization of substances for standard derivation. With integrated content and up-to-date information on assessment of regulations that affect the derivation and use of EQS, it examines the derivation of these standards and their implementation to protect human health and the environment. The book is based on contributions from thirty-five scientists, regulators, and policy makers from eleven countries with individual expertise across disciplines such as risk assessment, environmental, health, economic, and social sciences. These scientists summarize current knowledge on aquatic and terrestrial environmental quality standards, placing these standards in a wider socioeconomic and regulatory context. The book explains how to derive environmental standards that are defensible from a scientific and socioeconomic perspective. Using multidisciplinary techniques applicable to water, sediments, and soils; the text demonstrates how to select the best form and derivation method relative to individual environmental standards. The book presents an in-depth examination of when, where, and how to implement environmental standards based on the social and economic context. It includes detailed coverage of technical approaches that shed light on the derivation and implementation of EQSs. It also identifies future research that will help to underpin the science of environmental and human health standards.

Genomics in Regulatory Ecotoxicology

Applications and Challenges

Author: Gerald Ankley,Ann Miracle,Edward J. Perkins,George P. Daston

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420066838

Category: Science

Page: 200

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Fueled partially by large, well-publicized efforts such as the Human Genome Project, genomic research is a rapidly growing area in multiple biological disciplines, including toxicology. Much of this potential, however, has been discussed in the literature and at technical meetings only in relatively broad terms, making it difficult to assess exactly how data generated from new genomics technologies might actually impact or benefit the risk assessment process.

Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides

Author: William J. Warren-Hicks,Andy Hart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439807354

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 7871

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While current methods used in ecological risk assessments for pesticides are largely deterministic, probabilistic methods that aim to quantify variability and uncertainty in exposure and effects are attracting growing interest from industries and governments. Probabilistic methods offer more realistic and meaningful estimates of risk and hence, potentially, a better basis for decision-making. Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides examines the applicability of probabilistic methods for ecological risk assessment for pesticides and explores their appropriateness for general use. The book presents specific methods leading to probabilistic decisions concerning the registration and application of pesticides and includes case studies illustrating the application of statistical methods. The authors discuss Bayesian inference, first-order error analysis, first-order (non-hierarchical) Monte Carlo methods, second-order Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods, interval analysis, and probability bounds analysis. They then examine how these methods can be used in assessments for other environmental stressors and contaminants. There are many methods of analyzing variability and uncertainty and many ways of presenting the results. Inappropriate use of these methods leads to misleading results, and experts differ on what is appropriate. Disagreement about which methods are appropriate will result in wasted resources, conflict over findings, and reduced credibility with decision makers and the public. There is, therefore, a need to reach a consensus on how to choose and use appropriate methods, and to present this in the form of guidance for prospective users. Written in a clear and concise style, the book examines how to use probabilistic methods within a risk-based decision paradigm.

Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment

Author: Lawrence W. Barnthouse,Wayne R. Munns, Jr.,Mary T. Sorensen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420053333

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 376

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Most ecological risk assessments consider the risk to individual organisms or organism-level attributes. From a management perspective, however, risks to population-level attributes and processes are often more relevant. Despite many published calls for population risk assessment and the abundance of available scientific research and technical tools assessing risks to populations, risk assessors worldwide still have difficulty determining how population level considerations can be integrated into environmental decision-making. Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment establishes a framework for goals, methods, and data needs for different assessment applications and for integrating population-level risk assessment into risk management decisions. Beginning with a summary of legal, regulatory, business, and other contexts, the book presents population-level ecological risk assessment as an internationally recognized, science-based tool and offers specific recommendations for using this tool to support environmental management decisions. It gives clear, explicit, operational population assessment definitions and explains the relevance of density dependence, genetics, and spatial considerations, as well as applicable lessons from conservation biology and natural resource management. The authors provide a "tool box" of empirical and modeling methods and describe the general approaches, assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations of each method. They establish a working foundation for designing and conducting population-level ecological risk assessments consistent with North American, European, and Japanese risk management approaches. The book concludes by highlighting key considerations needed to improve the scientific quality and interpretation of assessments. Detailed appendices include examples of population-level assessment approaches applicable to specific environmental management contexts, a modeling case study, and a supplemental reading list.

Mixture Toxicity

Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology

Author: Cornelis A. M. van Gestel,Martijs Jonker,Jan E. Kammenga,Ryszard Laskowski,Claus Svendsen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439830093

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 7042

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In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.

Soil Quality Standards for Trace Elements

Derivation, Implementation, and Interpretation

Author: Graham Merrington,Ilse Schoeters

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439830246

Category: Science

Page: 184

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A comprehensive and practical overview of the state of the science, Soil Quality Standards for Trace Elements: Derivation, Implementation, and Interpretation addresses the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements and the implementation of these standards within regulatory and risk assessment frameworks. Forty experts from 11 countries across Europe, Asia, and North America—a multidisciplinary group of government policy makers and regulators, academics, industry representatives, and consultants—provide a focused discussion on the science and methods underpinning the derivation of soil quality standards for trace elements. Outlines the supporting science for setting environmental and human health standards Covers the application and practical use of soil quality standards for trace elements Contains recommendations on the development and use of soil quality standards for trace elements Identifies best practices in accounting for (bio)availability and exposure modelling in standard setting for soils The book provides a clear description of how to derive and implement soil quality standards for trace elements in order to assess human and environmental risks. It covers scientific developments useful for resolving discrepancies in the setting and implementation of soil quality standards. It provides useful tips, including do's, and don'ts on how to deal with issues such as variation of the natural background and soil type dependent toxicity.

Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

Author: Lorraine Maltby,Dave Arnold,Gertie Arts,Jo Davies,Fred Heimbach,Christina Pickl,Veronique Poulsen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439822131

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 5847

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Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. An integration of regulatory and research information from key specialists in the area of environmental regulation, Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides provides a state-of-the-art guide to ecotoxicological risk assessment. Written by well-known experts in the field of aquatic risk assessment, this book is a practical reference for the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquatic macrophytes. The book supplies a concise, coherent, and science-based view from influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists. They address the selection of additional species, critical regulatory endpoints, and assessing the risk of plant protection products to aquatic macrophytes. They also present a clear description of key issues in macrophyte risk assessment, information on macrophyte test methods, suitable measurement endpoints, and data evaluation and interpretation. Filled with recommendations distilled from existing regulatory experiences of aquatic macrophyte risk assessment, the book includes case studies to identify issues, data gaps, and inadequacies in study design. It also identifies improvements to risk assessment that could be implemented immediately and those for which further research is needed. An authoritative resource, the book points the way to an improved approach to aquatic macrophyte risk assessment.

Roots and Reflections

South Asians in the Pacific Northwest

Author: Amy Bhatt,Nalini Iyer

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 0295804556

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 1003

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Immigrants from South Asia first began settling in Washington and Oregon in the nineteenth century, but because of restrictions placed on Asian immigration to the United States in the early twentieth century, the vast majority have come to the region since World War II. Roots and Reflections uses oral history to show how South Asian immigrant experiences were shaped by the region and how they differed over time and across generations. It includes the stories of immigrants from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka who arrived from the end of World War II through the 1980s. Watch the trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHjtOvH0YdU&list=UUge4MONgLFncQ1w1C_BnHcw&index=3&feature=plcp