Elements of Finite Model Theory

Author: Leonid Libkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662070030

Category: Mathematics

Page: 318

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Emphasizes the computer science aspects of the subject. Details applications in databases, complexity theory, and formal languages, as well as other branches of computer science.

Complexity of Constraints

An Overview of Current Research Themes

Author: Nadia Creignou,Phokion G. Kolaitis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540927999

Category: Computers

Page: 321

View: 8075

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Nowadays constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are ubiquitous in many different areas of computer science, from artificial intelligence and database systems to circuit design, network optimization, and theory of programming languages. Consequently, it is important to analyze and pinpoint the computational complexity of certain algorithmic tasks related to constraint satisfaction. The complexity-theoretic results of these tasks may have a direct impact on, for instance, the design and processing of database query languages, or strategies in data-mining, or the design and implementation of planners. This state-of-the-art survey contains the papers that were invited by the organizers after conclusion of an International Dagstuhl-Seminar on Complexity of Constraints, held in Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, in October 2006. A number of speakers were solicited to write surveys presenting the state of the art in their area of expertise. These contributions were peer-reviewed by experts in the field and revised before they were collated to the 9 papers of this volume. In addition, the volume contains a reprint of a survey by Kolaitis and Vardi on the logical approach to constraint satisfaction that first appeared in 'Finite Model Theory and its Applications', published by Springer in 2007.

Quantifiers and Cognition: Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319287494

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

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This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Komplexitätstheorie und Kryptologie

Eine Einführung in Kryptokomplexität

Author: Jörg Rothe

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540797459

Category: Computers

Page: 535

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Während die Kryptologie Konzepte und Methoden aus der Komplexitätstheorie verwendet, ist die Forschung in der Komplexitätstheorie wiederum oft durch Fragen aus der Kryptologie motiviert. Der Band hebt die enge Verflechtung dieser beiden Gebiete hervor und führt auf verständlicher Weise in das faszinierende Gebiet der „Kryptokomplexität" ein. Das Buch enthält zahlreiche Abbildungen und Übungsaufgaben sowie ein ausführliches Stichwort- und Literaturverzeichnis. Es eignet sich für Studierende der Informatik, Mathematik oder Ingenieurswissenschaften.

Finite Model Theory and Its Applications

Author: Erich Grädel,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Leonid Libkin,Maarten Marx,Joel Spencer,Moshe Y. Vardi,Yde Venema,Scott Weinstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540004289

Category: Computers

Page: 437

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Finite model theory,as understoodhere, is an areaof mathematicallogic that has developed in close connection with applications to computer science, in particular the theory of computational complexity and database theory. One of the fundamental insights of mathematical logic is that our understanding of mathematical phenomena is enriched by elevating the languages we use to describe mathematical structures to objects of explicit study. If mathematics is the science of patterns, then the media through which we discern patterns, as well as the structures in which we discern them, command our attention. It isthis aspect oflogicwhichis mostprominentin model theory,“thebranchof mathematical logic which deals with the relation between a formal language and its interpretations”. No wonder, then, that mathematical logic, and ?nite model theory in particular, should ?nd manifold applications in computer science: from specifying programs to querying databases, computer science is rife with phenomena whose understanding requires close attention to the interaction between language and structure. This volume gives a broadoverviewof some central themes of ?nite model theory: expressive power, descriptive complexity, and zero–one laws, together with selected applications to database theory and arti?cial intelligence, es- cially constraint databases and constraint satisfaction problems. The ?nal chapter provides a concise modern introduction to modal logic,which emp- sizes the continuity in spirit and technique with ?nite model theory.

Automatentheorie und Logik

Author: Martin Hofmann,Martin Lange

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642180906

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

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Das Buch beschäftigt sich mit der Theorie endlicher Automaten und den klassischen Resultaten wie den Sätzen von Richard Büchi und Michael Rabin. Die vier Teile des Buchs sind den unterschiedlichen Strukturen gewidmet: endliche Wörter, Bäume, endliche und unendliche Bäume. Jeder Teil endet mit Übungsaufgaben zum behandelten Stoff sowie Hinweisen auf weiterführende Literatur. Soweit Vorkenntnisse zur Theorie formaler Sprachen vorhanden sind, kann das Buch ohne weitere Hilfsmittel durchgearbeitet werden.

Parameterized Complexity Theory

Author: J. Flum,M. Grohe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540299530

Category: Computers

Page: 495

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This book is a state-of-the-art introduction into both algorithmic techniques for fixed-parameter tractability and the structural theory of parameterized complexity classes. It presents detailed proofs of recent advanced results that have not appeared in book form before and replaces the earlier publication "Parameterized Complexity" by Downey and Fellows as the definitive book on this subject. The book will interest computer scientists, mathematicians and graduate students engaged with algorithms and problem complexity.

Automata, Languages and Programming

17th International Colloquium, Warwick University, England, July 16-20, 1990, Proceedings

Author: Michael S. Paterson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540528265

Category: Computers

Page: 780

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In subvolume 27C1 magnetic and related properties of binary lanthanide oxides have been compiled. This subvolume covers data obtained since 1980 and can therefore be regarded as supplement to volume III/12c. While in the previous volume the majority of magnetic data was obtained either from magnetometric measurements or from neutron diffraction, for the present data the main emphasis is devoted to 'related' properties without which, however, the understanding of classical magnetic properties is impossible. A second part 27C2 will deal with binary oxides of the actinide elements.

Graph-Grammars and Their Application to Computer Science

3rd International Workshop, Warrenton, Virginia, USA, December 2-6, 1986

Author: Hartmut Ehrig,Manfred Nagl,Grzegorz Rozenberg,Azriel Rosenfeld

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540187714

Category: Computers

Page: 609

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The generic term "graph-grammars" refers to a variety of methods for specifying (possibly infinite) sets of graphs or sets of maps. The area of graph-grammars originated in the late 60s motivated by considerations concerning pattern recognition - since then the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph-grammars has grown quite impressively. It includes pattern recognition, software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, data bases, lambda-calculus, analysis of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, incremental compilers, computer animation, complexity theory, developmental biology, music composition, representation of physical solids, and many others. This volume is based on the contributions presented at the third international workshop on graph-grammars and their applications, held in Warrenton, Virginia, USA in December 1986. Aiming at the best possible representation of the field not all of the papers presented at the meeting appear in this volume and some of the papers from this volume were not presented at the workshop. The volume consists of two parts: Part I presents tutorial introductions to a number of basic graph and map rewriting mechanisms. Part II contains technical contributions. This collection of papers provides the reader with an up-to-date overview of current trends in graph-grammars.

Theory of Reversible Computing

Author: Kenichi Morita

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431566066

Category: Computers

Page: 457

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This book describes reversible computing from the standpoint of the theory of automata and computing. It investigates how reversibility can be effectively utilized in computing. A reversible computing system is a “backward deterministic” system such that every state of the system has at most one predecessor. Although its definition is very simple, it is closely related to physical reversibility, one of the fundamental microscopic laws of Nature. Authored by the leading scientist on the subject, this book serves as a valuable reference work for anyone working in reversible computation or in automata theory in general. This work deals with various reversible computing models at several different levels, which range from the microscopic to the macroscopic, and aims to clarify how computation can be carried out efficiently and elegantly in these reversible computing models. Because the construction methods are often unique and different from those in the traditional methods, these computing models as well as the design methods provide new insights for future computing systems. Organized bottom-up, the book starts with the lowest scale of reversible logic elements and circuits made from them. This is followed by reversible Turing machines, the most basic computationally universal machines, and some other types of reversible automata such as reversible multi-head automata and reversible counter machines. The text concludes with reversible cellular automata for massively parallel spatiotemporal computation. In order to help the reader have a clear understanding of each model, the presentations of all different models follow a similar pattern: the model is given in full detail, a short informal discussion is held on the role of different elements of the model, and an example with illustrations follows each model.

Models of Computation

Author: Roberto Bruni,Ugo Montanari

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319429000

Category: Computers

Page: 395

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This book presents in their basic form the most important models of computation, their basic programming paradigms, and their mathematical descriptions, both concrete and abstract. Each model is accompanied by relevant formal techniques for reasoning on it and for proving some properties. After preliminary chapters that introduce the notions of structure and meaning, semantic methods, inference rules, and logic programming, the authors arrange their chapters into parts on IMP, a simple imperative language; HOFL, a higher-order functional language; concurrent, nondeterministic and interactive models; and probabilistic/stochastic models. The authors have class-tested the book content over many years, and it will be valuable for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of theoretical computer science and distributed systems, and for researchers in this domain. Each chapter of the book concludes with a list of exercises addressing the key techniques introduced, solutions to selected exercises are offered at the end of the book.

A Practical Theory of Reactive Systems

Incremental Modeling of Dynamic Behaviors

Author: R. Kurki-Suonio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540233423

Category: Computers

Page: 420

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A man may imagine he understands something, but still not understand anything in the way that he ought to. (Paul of Tarsus, 1 Corinthians 8:2) Calling this a ‘practical theory’ may require some explanation. Theory and practice are often thought of as two di?erent worlds, governed bydi?erentideals,principles, andlaws.DavidLorgeParnas, forinstance,who hascontributedmuchtoourtheoreticalunderstandingofsoftwareengineering and also to sound use of theory in the practice of it, likes to point out that ‘theoretically’ is synonymous to ‘not really’. In applied mathematics the goal is to discover useful connections between these two worlds. My thesis is that in software engineering this two-world view is inadequate, and a more intimate interplay is required between theory and practice. That is, both theoretical and practical components should be integrated into a practical theory. It should beclearfrom theabovethattheintended readership of this book is not theoreticians. They would probably have di?culties in appreciating a book on theory where the presentation does not proceed in a logical sequence from basic de?nitions to theorems and mathematical proofs, followed by - plication examples. In fact, all this would not constitute what I understand by a practical theory in this context.

Graph Transformations

4th International Conference, ICGT 2008, Leicester, United Kingdom, September 7-13, 2008, Proceedings

Author: Hartmut Ehrig,Reiko Heckel,Grzegorz Rozenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540874046

Category: Computers

Page: 523

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Graph Transformations, ICGT 2008, held in Leicester, UK, in September 2008. The 27 revised full papers presented together with 5 tutorial and workshop papers and 3 invited lectures were carefully selected from 57 submissions. All current aspects in graph drawing are addressed including hypergraphs and termgraph rewriting, applications of graph transformation, execution of graph transformations, compositional systems, validation and verification, graph languages and special transformation concepts, as well as patterns and model transformations. In addition the volume contains 17 short papers of the ICGT 2008 Doctoral Symposium.

Petri nets--central models and their properties

advances in Petri nets, 1986, part I, proceedings of an advanced course, Bad Honnef, 8.-19. September 1986

Author: W. Brauer,Wolfgang Reisig,Grzegorz Rozenberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 480

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The present volume is the first of two parts which constitute the proceedings of the 1986 Advanced Course on Petri Nets in Bad Honnef. It presents a number of central petri net models and their properties setting a firm formal basis for developing the theory of petri nets and for their adaption in a wide range of applications. These current issues of the "Advances in Petri Nets" present the most significant recent results in the application and theory of petri nets to the broad computer science community. They particularly address those who are: - interested in systems design and would like to learn to use petri nets, - familiar with subareas of the theory or the applications of nets and wish to become acquainted with the whole area, - interested in learning about recent results presented within a unified framework, - going to learn about successfully applying petri nets in various practical situations, - interested in the relationship of petri nets to other models of concurrent systems.

Relationen und Graphen

Author: Gunther Schmidt,Thomas Ströhlein

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642836089

Category: Mathematics

Page: 306

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Dieses Buch gibt eine neuartige systematische Darstellung der Diskreten Mathematik; sie orientiert sich an Methoden der Relationenalgebra. Ähnlich wie man es sonst nur für die weit entwickelte Analysis im kontinuierlichen Fall und die Matrizenrechnung gewohnt ist, stellt dieses Buch auch für die Behandlung diskreter Probleme geeignete Techniken und Hilfsmittel sowie eine einheitliche Theorie bereit. Die einzelnen Kapitel beginnen jeweils mit anschaulichen und motivierenden Beispielen und behandeln anschließend den Stoff in mathematischer Strenge. Es folgen jeweils praktische Anwendungen. Diese entstammen der Semantik der Programmierung, der Programmverifikation, dem Datenbankbereich, der Spieltheorie oder der Theorie der Zuordnungen und Überdeckungen aus der Graphentheorie; sie reichen aber auch bis zu rein mathematischen "Anwendungen" wie der transfiniten Induktion. Im Anhang ist dem Buch eine Einführung in die Boolesche Algebra und in die Axiomatik der Relationenalgebra beigegeben, sowie ein Abriß der Fixpunkt- und Antimorphismen-Theorie.

Automata, Languages and Programming

36th International Colloquium, ICALP 2009, Rhodes, Greece, July 5-12, 2009, Proceedings

Author: Susanne Albers,Alberto Marchetti-Spaccamela,Yossi Matias,Sotiris Nikoletseas,Wolfgang Thomas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642029301

Category: Computers

Page: 597

View: 3661

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ICALP 2009, the 36th edition of the International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, was held on the island of Rhodes, July 6–10, 2009. ICALP is a series of annual conferences of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) which ?rst took place in 1972. This year, the ICALP program consisted of the established track A (focusing on algorithms, complexity and games) and track B (focusing on logic, automata, semantics and theory of programming), and of the recently introduced track C (in 2009 focusing on foundations of networked computation). In response to the call for papers, the Program Committee received 370 s- missions: 223 for track A, 84 for track B and 63 for track C. Out of these, 108 papers were selected for inclusion in the scienti?c program: 62 papers for track A, 24 for track B and 22 for track C. The selection was made by the Program Committees based on originality, quality, and relevance to theoretical computer science. The quality of the manuscripts was very high indeed, and many dese- ing papers could not be selected. ICALP 2009 consisted of ?ve invited lectures and the contributed papers.