Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans

Author: P.A. Tyler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080494654

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 6306

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This volume examines the deep sea ecosystem from a variety of perspectives. The initial chapters examine the deep-sea floor, the deep pelagic environment and the more specialised chemosynthetic environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. These environments are examined from the perspective of the relationship of deep-sea animals to their physico-chemical environment. Later chapters examine the biogeography of the main deep oceans (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) with particular attention to the downward flux of surface-derived organic matter and how this drives the processes within the deep-sea ecosystem. The peripheral deep seas including the polar seas and the marginal deep seas (inter alia the Mediterranean, Red, Caribbean and Okhotsk seas) are explored in the same context. The final chapters examine the processes occurring in the deep sea and include an analysis of why the deep sea has high species diversity, how the fauna respond to organic input and how species have adapted reproductive activity in the deep sea. The volume concludes with an analysis of the anthropogenic impact on the deep sea.

The Biology of the Deep Ocean

Author: Peter Herring

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191588419

Category: Nature

Page: 324

View: 7897

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The deep ocean environment is the most extensive on our planet. Its denizens are normally unseen but whenever they are exposed to view they are regarded as bizarre aliens from a different world. The Biology of the Deep Ocean takes a close look at this apparently hostile world and explains how its inhabitants are exquisitely adapted to survive and flourish within it. The book begins with an analysis of how conditions in the oceanic environment differ from those in the familiar terrestrial world and then describes the techniques (and ingenuity) required to reveal the populations inhabiting the colossal volume of the deep oceans. A section on primary production emphasizes how almost all deep-sea life depends ultimately on the phytoplankton at the surface and the export flux to deeper water. The ultimate beneficiaries of this export, the populations on the deep-sea floor, are then discussed, together with the unique features of life fuelled by chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of deep-sea animals, and their changes in time and space, are controlled by physical, biological and historical factors. The rapid reduction of biomass with depth puts a high priority on efficient prey capture and energy conservation. Chapters on energy efficiency, mechanoreception, chemoreception and vision reveal the extraordinary adaptations necessary for success. Accounts of the effector systems involved in colour, camouflage and bioluminescence heighten the concept of a different world. A chapter on animal life styles emphasizes the links between size, sex, and seasonality, visible in the contrasting benefits of gigantism, dwarf males and the ability to respond to a periodic influx of food from the surface. The final chapter and appendix deal with the unique and exciting variety of life in the deep ocean, formalized as biodiversity. Its different expression on the sea floor and in midwater invites both comparisons with the rain forest and concerns about its fragility, taking the reader back to the emphasis in the first chapter on how little we still know about this critical habitat. The Biology of the Deep Ocean complements the two companion volumes on the biology of littoral and estuarine habitats and is designed to be accessible to all marine scientists, student and professional.

The Oceans in the Nuclear Age

Legacies and Risks: Expanded Edition

Author: David D. Caron,Harry N. Scheiber

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004279989

Category: Law

Page: 636

View: 8347

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Ocean affairs are deeply woven into the history of the nuclear age. Ranging from wastes to security, this study frames the complex relationships between the oceans and the nuclear age and illuminates patterns of impact and response in ocean law.

State of the World's Oceans

Author: Michelle Allsopp,Stefan E. Pambuccian,Paul Johnston,David Santillo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402091168

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 1146

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The world’s oceans cover 70% of the earth’s surface and are home to a myriad of amazing and beautiful creatures. However, the biodiversity of the oceans is incre- ingly coming under serious threat from many human activities including overfi- ing, use of destructive fishing methods, pollution and commercial aquaculture. In addition, climate change is already having an impact on some marine ecosystems. This book discusses some of the major threats facing marine ecosystems by cons- ering a range of topics, under chapters discussing biodiversity (Chapter 1), fisheries (Chapter 2), aquaculture (Chapter 3), pollution (Chapter 4) and the impacts of increasing greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 5). It goes on to explore solutions to the problems by discussing equitable and sustainable management of the oceans (Chapter 6) and protecting marine ecosystems using marine reserves (Chapter 7). Presently, 76% of the oceans are fully or over-exploited with respect to fishing, and many species have been severely depleted. It is abundantly clear that, in general, current fisheries management regimes are to blame for much of the widespread degradation of the oceans. Many policy-makers and scientists now agree that we must adopt a radical new approach to managing the seas – one that is precautionary in nature and has protection of the whole marine ecosystem as its primary objective. This ‘ecosystem-based approach’ is vital if we are to ensure the health of our oceans for future generations.

Protecting the Oceans Beyond National Jurisdiction

Strengthening the International Law Framework

Author: Robin Warner

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004172629

Category: Law

Page: 275

View: 1260

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Knowledge of the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction and its unique biodiversity is still developing. Simultaneously, traditional uses of these areas including fishing and shipping, are intensifying and new uses are emerging such as bio-prospecting for marine genetic resources and climate change mitigation activities. This volume examines the threats to the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction from existing and emerging human uses and the adequacy of current international law provisions to protect this major part of the global environment. An analysis of key provisions in the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention and complementary principles of international environmental law reveals significant tensions between the concept of high seas freedoms and the international law obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction. The book compares the lack of comprehensive environmental regulation for marine resource exploitation and shipping activities beyond national jurisdiction with the best practice standards for environmental protection being developed by the International Seabed Authority for deep seabed mining exploration. Recent initiatives by the international community to study issues relating to conservation of high seas biodiversity are discussed and a range of soft and hard law options to strengthen the international law framework for protection of the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction are considered.

The Silent Deep

The Discovery, Ecology and Conservation of the Deep Sea

Author: Julian Anthony Koslow

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 4479

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Discusses the ecology of the deep sea, the impact being made by humans, and advocates for protection of this ecosystem.

Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Deep Waters and High Seas

Author: Kristina M. Gjerde

Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint

ISBN: 9280727346

Category: Biotic communities

Page: 58

View: 9739

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Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Deep Waters and High Seas outlines a number of options for the conservation and sustainable management of the deep seas and open oceans, including actions and measures that reflect an integrated approach to oceans management based on "ecological boundaries" rather than just political ones, giving higher levels of protection to vulnerable species like deep sea fish as well as to biologically and ecologically significant ecosystems such as cold water corals and hydrothermal vent communities.

Deep-Sea Ecosystems Off Mauritania

Research of Marine Biodiversity and Habitats in the Northwest African Margin

Author: Ana Ramos,Fran Ramil,José Luis Sanz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402410236

Category: Science

Page: 683

View: 2695

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This book compiles the main findings of the multidisciplinary long-term research program developed in the continental margin of one of the more productive and unknown areas of the world oceans, Northwest Africa. The more than 25,000 preserved fishes and benthic invertebrates and quantitative data collected in 342 trawling stations, the 267 oceanographic profiles, the 211 sediment samples and the 28,122 km2 prospected by multi˗beam echo sounding allowed to obtain an overview of the amazing biodiversity of the demersal and benthic fauna inhabiting soft- and hard-bottom habitats, as well as the fascinating geomorphology and oceanography, hidden in the Mauritanian slope.

Der Mensch und das Meer

Warum der größte Lebensraum der Erde in Gefahr ist

Author: Callum Roberts

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641100062

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 6865

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Der Wandel eines faszinierenden, bedrohten Lebensraums Die Ozeane sind nicht nur der größte Lebensraum der Erde, sondern auch der am wenigsten erforschte. Die unermessliche Vielfalt dieses Ökosystems beginnen wir erst jetzt bis in die letzten Winkel zu begreifen – auch wie wichtig das Meer für unser Leben ist. Im letzten Jahrhundert hat jedoch die Herrschaft des Menschen über die Natur auch die Ozeane erreicht: Wir fischen die Meere leer und füllen sie stattdessen mit Umweltgiften. Tiefseebergbau droht den Lebensraum unzähliger Pflanzen und Tiere bis zur Unkenntlichkeit zu verändern. Die Klimaerwärmung ließ bereits ein Viertel aller Korallen zugrunde gehen. In seinem aufrüttelnden Buch beschreibt der Meeresbiologe und –schützer Callum Roberts den großen Reichtum der Ozeane und ihren Wandel, und er ruft dazu auf, der Zerstörung der Meere endlich Einhalt zu gebieten, denn noch ist es nicht zu spät.

Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

Author: F. Stuart Chapin, III,Pamela A. Matson,Harold A. Mooney

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387954431

Category: Nature

Page: 436

View: 9661

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Features review questions at the end of each chapter; Includes suggestions for recommended reading; Provides a glossary of ecological terms; Has a wide audience as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and as a reference for practicing scientists from a wide array of disciplines

Soils and Global Change

Author: John M. Kimble,Elissa R. Levine,Bobby A. Stewart

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566701181

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 8046

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The pedosphere - the thin mantel of soil on the earth's surface - plays a potentially crucial role in climate and climate change . The carbon storage of soils is the second largest in the biosphere, making the dynamics of soil organic carbon an important issue that must be understood if we are to fully comprehend global change. This new book examines the importance of soils and their relationship to global change, specifically to the greenhouse effect. Soils and Global Change presents a state-of-the-art compendium of our present knowledge of soils. This up-to-date information source enables readers to delve into the literature about soils and climate change and examine soils in both natural and managed environments.

The State of the Nation's Ecosystems

Measuring the Lands, Waters, and Living Resources of the United States

Author: H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521525725

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 270

View: 8366

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Provides succinct, comprehensive - yet scientifically sound and non-partisan - view of state of ecosystems in US.

Deep-sea Biodiversity and Ecosystems

A Scoping Report on Their Socio-economy, Management and Governanace

Author: Sybille van den Hove,Vincent Moreau

Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint

ISBN: 9789280728927

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 84

View: 1188

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The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the key socio-economic, management and governance issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of deep-sea ecosystems and biodiversity. The report highlights our current understanding of these issues and identifies topics and areas that need further investigation to close gaps in knowledge. It also explores the needs and means for interfacing research with policy with a view to contributing to the political processes regarding deep-sea and high-seas governance, which are currently ongoing in various international flora within and outside the UN system. In addition, the report provides guidance on the future direction and focus of research on environmental, socio-economic and governance aspects in relation to the deep-sea.

Discovering the Deep

A Photographic Atlas of the Seafloor and Ocean Crust

Author: Jeffrey A. Karson,Deborah S. Kelley,Daniel J. Fornari,Michael R. Perfit,Timothy M. Shank

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316239594

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5363

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The deep oceans and global seafloor are truly Earth's last frontier. They remain largely unexplored, yet are critical to our survival on this planet. This magnificent, full-color volume transports you to bizarre landscapes hosting exotic life forms that rival the most imaginative science fiction. Starting with a historical summary of seafloor exploration and the developing technologies used to study this extreme environment, it then describes the distinctive geologic components of the Earth's ocean floor and the unusual biological communities found along the mid-ocean ridges. This is an indispensable reference for researchers, teachers, and students of marine science, and a visually stunning resource that will enlighten and intrigue oceanographers and enthusiasts alike. A suite of online resources, including photographs and video clips, combine with the book to provide fascinating insights into the hidden world of seafloor geology and biology using the latest deep-sea imaging and geological concepts.

Ecosystems: Oceans

Author: Trevor Day

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113594346X

Category: JUVENILE NONFICTION

Page: 226

View: 8324

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The oceans are teeming with life of all kinds. Changing sea levels, plate tectonics, chemical cycling, sedimentation, and the atmosphere greatly impact these habitats. The ocean's currents and sea level are tied closely to weather patterns and in turn to such issues as global warming and El Nino. Oceans provides a complete overview of the ecosystem that exists in these bodies of water. From the coastal wetlands to the deep ocean waters, the geography, geology, chemistry, and physics of oceans are thoroughly examined in this volume. Today, the impact that human use of ocean resources has on these habitats, including habitat loss and overharvesting, is in constant debate. Oceans looks at these possible threats and concludes with a balanced look at the ways to manage the oceans, as well as the future of this ecosystem.

Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963479

Category: Science

Page: 3278

View: 536

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Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method. The editors have built Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

50 Years of Ocean Discovery

National Science Foundation 1950-2000

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309172578

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 6030

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This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity. In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF’s Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and career staff over the past 50 years.

Creatures of the Deep

In Search of the Sea's "monsters" and the World They Live in

Author: Erich Hoyt

Publisher: Firefly Books Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 160

View: 8443

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This book goes in search of the sea's "monsters" and the world they live in.

Life in the World's Oceans

Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance

Author: Alasdair McIntyre

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348094

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 6478

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Life in the World's Oceans: Diversity, Abundance and Distribution is a true landmark publication. Comprising the synthesis and analysis of the results of the Census of Marine Life this most important book brings together the work of around 2000 scientists from 80 nations around the globe. The book is broadly divided into four sections, covering oceans past, oceans present, oceans future and a final section covering the utilisation of the data which has been gathered, and the coordination and communication of the results. Edited by Professor Alasdair Mcintyre, Marine Life is a book which should find a place on the shelves of all marine scientists, ecologists, conservation biologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and environmental biologists. All universities and research establishments where biological, earth and fisheries science are studied and taught should have copies of this essential book on their shelves. A true landmark publication One of the most important marine science books ever published Contributions from many world leading researchers Synthesis of a huge amount of important data Represents the culmination of 10 years' research by 2000 scientists from 80 countries

Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Frameworks, methodologies, and integration

Author: Martin Solan,Rebecca J. Aspden,David M. Paterson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191637394

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 1688

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The biological composition and richness of most of the Earth's major ecosystems are being dramatically and irreversibly transformed by anthropogenic activity. Yet, despite the vast areal extent of our oceans, the mainstay of research to-date in the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning arena has been weighted towards ecological observations and experimentation in terrestrial plant and soil systems. This book provides a framework for extending these concepts to a variety of marine systems. Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning is the first book to address the latest advances in biodiversity-function science using marine examples. It brings together contributions from the leading scientists in the field to provide an in-depth evaluation of the science, before offering a perspective on future research directions for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today and in the future.