Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground

Author: L.R. Walker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550848

Category: Science

Page: 868

View: 8063


As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.

The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Author: Lawrence R. Walker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199575290

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 4505


Providing a global summary of the biology of disturbance ecology, this text offers both the conceptual underpinnings and practical advice required to comprehend and address the unprecedented environmental challenges facing humans. It examines both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

Soil Biota and Ecosystem Development in Post Mining Sites

Author: Jan Frouz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466599316

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 2006


This book focuses on soil development in restoration of post‐mining sites. In particular, the authors address the role of biota, including plants, microorganisms, invertebrates, and their various interactions during the process of soil formation. The book largely deals with sites created by open‐cast mining, as this method represents a very destructive and, at the same time, intensively studied example of a mining operation. This book is a useful summary of recent knowledge for scholars dealing with ecosystem development after large disturbances as well as for practitioners dealing with reclamation and restoration of post‐mining land.

Ecosystem Health

New Goals for Environmental Management

Author: Robert Costanza,Bryan G. Norton,Benjamin D. Haskell

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559631402

Category: Science

Page: 269

View: 8384


Discusses managing the environment from philosophical, scientific, and political perspectives

The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics

Author: Steward T.A. Pickett,P. S. White

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080504957

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 7341


Ecologists are aware of the importance of natural dynamics in ecosystems. Historically, the focus has been on the development in succession of equilibrium communities, which has generated an understanding of the composition and functioning of ecosystems. Recently, many have focused on the processes of disturbances and the evolutionary significance of such events. This shifted emphasis has inspired studies in diverse systems. The phrase "patch dynamics" (Thompson, 1978) describes their common focus. The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics brings together the findings and ideas of those studying varied systems, presenting a synthesis of diverse individual contributions.

Soil Biodiversity in Amazonian and Other Brazilian Ecosystems

Author: F. M. S. Moreira,J. O. Siqueira,L. Brussaard

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845930347

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 9763


The loss of biological diversity has become an increased concern over recent years and is now enshrined in international conventions. Most biodiversity in fact occurs in the soil. Soil organisms (especially bacteria, fungi and soil invertebrates) play a major role in the formation of soil structure and are primary agents of decomposition and are drivers of nutrient cycling, and hence agricultural production.This book reviews soil biodiversity in one of the key biodiversity hotspots of the world, i.e. the Amazon and nearby regions of Brazil. It covers both the tropical savannah and rain forests . The work reported is based on a project "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity", executed by TSBF-CIAT with co-financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implementation support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The book represents a major contribution to the literature and will interest those in biodiversity conservation, soil scienceand ecology and biodiversity conservation.

Environmental Restoration

Science And Strategies For Restoring The Earth

Author: Restoring the Earth Conference,Restoring the Earth (Organization),University of California, Berkeley. Center for Environmental Design Research,San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9780933280939

Category: Nature

Page: 398

View: 4361


Environmental Restoration is the product of a ground-breaking conference on ecological restoration, held in January 1988 at the University of California, Berkeley. It offers an overview from the nation's leading experts of the most current techniques of restoration, including examples of the complex and subtle biological interactions we must understand to ensure success.Chapters cover restoration of agricultural lands, barrens, coastal ecosystems, prairies, and range lands. Additional sections address temperate forests and watersheds, mined lands, soil bioengineering, urban issues including waste treatment and solid, toxic, and radioactive waste management. The book also covers restoration of aquatic systems, includes chapters on strategic planning and land acquisition, and provides examples of successful projects.

Regeneration of Plants in Arid Ecosystems Resulting from Patch Disturbance

Author: Yitzchak Gutterman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792367253

Category: Nature

Page: 243

View: 5769


The main subject of this book is the interaction between diggings created by porcupines when consuming geophytes, and their influences on annual and perennial vegetation in a desert biome. The accumulation of run-off water in diggings and depressions made by animals increases the carrying capacity of these microhabitats in the desert biome. The accumulation of run-off water does not only benefit the natural vegetation; a system of human-made depressions can be evolved to increase the catchment of the run-off water that is typical to many desert habitats, and can lead to run-off agriculture in such areas. This book will be of interest to anyone working in the fields of development of deserts from the ecological point of view, water resources, soil protection and erosion, plant ecophysiology and settlement, and agronomy. It will be helpful to students, researchers, teachers, and anyone interested in any of these areas.

Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans

Author: P.A. Tyler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080494654

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 7939


This volume examines the deep sea ecosystem from a variety of perspectives. The initial chapters examine the deep-sea floor, the deep pelagic environment and the more specialised chemosynthetic environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. These environments are examined from the perspective of the relationship of deep-sea animals to their physico-chemical environment. Later chapters examine the biogeography of the main deep oceans (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) with particular attention to the downward flux of surface-derived organic matter and how this drives the processes within the deep-sea ecosystem. The peripheral deep seas including the polar seas and the marginal deep seas (inter alia the Mediterranean, Red, Caribbean and Okhotsk seas) are explored in the same context. The final chapters examine the processes occurring in the deep sea and include an analysis of why the deep sea has high species diversity, how the fauna respond to organic input and how species have adapted reproductive activity in the deep sea. The volume concludes with an analysis of the anthropogenic impact on the deep sea.

Ecological Imperialism

Author: Alfred W. Crosby

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107569877

Category: History

Page: 390

View: 1180


A fascinating study of the important role of biology in European expansion, from 900 to 1900.

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Synthesis and Perspectives

Author: Michel Loreau,Shahid Naeem,Pablo Inchausti

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198515715

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 4443


'This is the hottest area in ecology and environmental sciences right now. I think this is an excellent proposal.' -Professor James Grover, University of Texas at Arlington, USA'The outline is excellent. This is going to be the hottest book in ecology over the next 5 to 10 years.' -Professor Michael Hochberg, Universite de Montpellier 2, FranceDetermining the scientific relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has now emerged as one of the most important challenges in ecological and environmental science. This book provides a timely synthesis and critical assessment in order to generate a consensus on the main issues involved and stimulate new perspectives for future research.

Linking Restoration and Ecological Succession

Author: Lawrence R. Walker,Joe Walker,Richard J. Hobbs

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387353038

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 6907


This innovative book integrates practical information from restoration projects around the world with the latest developments in successional theory. It recognizes the critical roles of disturbance ecology, landscape ecology, ecological assembly, invasion biology, ecosystem health, and historical ecology in habitat restoration. It argues that restoration within a successional context will best utilize the lessons from each of these disciplines.

Soils of Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Characteristics, Ecology and Management

Author: Andreas Schulte,Daddy Ruhiyat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540636076

Category: Nature

Page: 206

View: 2656


An understanding of the characteristics and the ecology of soils, particularly those of forest ecosystems in the humid tropics, is central to the development of sustainable forest management systems. The present book examines the contribution that forest soil science and forest ecology can make to sustainable land use in the humid tropics. Four main issues are addressed: characteristics and classification of forest soils, chemical and hydrological changes after forest utilization, soil fertility management in forest plantations and agroforestry systems as well as ecosystem studies from the dipterocarp forest region of Southeast Asia. Additionally, case studies include work from Guyana, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia and Nigeria. The papers have been developed from presentations given at the "International Congress on Soils of Tropical Forest Ecosystems/3rd Conference on Forest Soils" held in Balikpapan, Indonesia, and will be indispensable for all concerned with forest soil science and sustainable forestry in the humid tropics.

Permafrost Ecosystems

Siberian Larch Forests

Author: Akira Osawa,Olga A. Zyryanova,Yojiro Matsuura,Takuya Kajimoto,Ross W. Wein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402096938

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 4058


Drawing from a decade-long collaboration between Japan and Russia, this important volume presents the first major synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of the coniferous forests growing on permafrost at high latitudes. It presents ecological data for a region long inaccessible to most scientists, and raises important questions about the global carbon balance as these systems are affected by the changing climate. Making up around 20% of the entire boreal forests of the northern hemisphere, these ‘permafrost forest ecosystems’ are subject to particular constraints in terms of temperature, nutrient availability, and root space, creating exceptional ecosystem characteristics not known elsewhere. This authoritative text explores their diversity, structure, dynamics and physiology. It provides a comparison of these forests in relation to boreal forests elsewhere, and concludes with an assessment of the potential responses of this unique biome to climate change. The book will be invaluable to advanced students and researchers interested in boreal vegetation, forest ecology, silviculture and forest soils, as well as to researchers into climate change and the global carbon balance.

Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Philip W. Rundel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540644750

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 447

View: 4380


Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.