Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground

Author: L.R. Walker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550848

Category: Science

Page: 868

View: 8507


As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.

The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Author: Lawrence R. Walker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199575290

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 1452


Providing a global summary of the biology of disturbance ecology, this text offers both the conceptual underpinnings and practical advice required to comprehend and address the unprecedented environmental challenges facing humans. It examines both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

Soil Biota and Ecosystem Development in Post Mining Sites

Author: Jan Frouz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466599332

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 666


This book focuses on soil development in restoration of post‐mining sites. In particular, the authors address the role of biota, including plants, microorganisms, invertebrates, and their various interactions during the process of soil formation. The book largely deals with sites created by open‐cast mining, as this method represents a very destructive and, at the same time, intensively studied example of a mining operation. This book is a useful summary of recent knowledge for scholars dealing with ecosystem development after large disturbances as well as for practitioners dealing with reclamation and restoration of post‐mining land.

Ecosystem Health

New Goals for Environmental Management

Author: Robert Costanza,Bryan G. Norton,Benjamin D. Haskell

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559631402

Category: Science

Page: 269

View: 8401


Discusses managing the environment from philosophical, scientific, and political perspectives

Resource Strategies of Wild Plants

Author: Joseph M. Craine

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400830648

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 7325


Over millions of years, terrestrial plants have competed for limited resources, defended themselves against herbivores, and resisted a myriad of environmental stresses. These struggles have helped generate more than a quarter million terrestrial plant species, each possessing a unique strategy for success. Yet, as Resource Strategies of Wild Plants demonstrates, the constraints on plant growth are universal enough that a few survival strategies hold true for all seed-producing plants. This book describes the five major strategies of growth for terrestrial plants, details how plants succeed when resources are scarce, delves into the history of research into plant strategies, and resets the foundational understanding of ecological processes. Drawing from recent findings in plant-herbivore interactions, ecosystem ecology, and evolutionary ecology, Joseph Craine explains how plants attain available nutrients, withstand the immense stresses of drying soils, and flourish in the race for light. He shows that the competition for resources has shaped plant evolution in newly discovered ways, while the scarcity of such resources has affected how plants interact with herbivores, wind, fire, and frost. An understanding of the major resource strategies of wild plants remains central to learning about the ecology of plant communities, global changes in the biosphere, methods for species conservation, and the evolution of life on earth.

Soil Biodiversity in Amazonian and Other Brazilian Ecosystems

Author: F. M. S. Moreira,J. O. Siqueira,L. Brussaard

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845930347

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 5164


The loss of biological diversity has become an increased concern over recent years and is now enshrined in international conventions. Most biodiversity in fact occurs in the soil. Soil organisms (especially bacteria, fungi and soil invertebrates) play a major role in the formation of soil structure and are primary agents of decomposition and are drivers of nutrient cycling, and hence agricultural production.This book reviews soil biodiversity in one of the key biodiversity hotspots of the world, i.e. the Amazon and nearby regions of Brazil. It covers both the tropical savannah and rain forests . The work reported is based on a project "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity", executed by TSBF-CIAT with co-financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implementation support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The book represents a major contribution to the literature and will interest those in biodiversity conservation, soil scienceand ecology and biodiversity conservation.

Regeneration of Plants in Arid Ecosystems Resulting from Patch Disturbance

Author: Yitzchak Gutterman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792367253

Category: Nature

Page: 243

View: 7148


The main subject of this book is the interaction between diggings created by porcupines when consuming geophytes, and their influences on annual and perennial vegetation in a desert biome. The accumulation of run-off water in diggings and depressions made by animals increases the carrying capacity of these microhabitats in the desert biome. The accumulation of run-off water does not only benefit the natural vegetation; a system of human-made depressions can be evolved to increase the catchment of the run-off water that is typical to many desert habitats, and can lead to run-off agriculture in such areas. This book will be of interest to anyone working in the fields of development of deserts from the ecological point of view, water resources, soil protection and erosion, plant ecophysiology and settlement, and agronomy. It will be helpful to students, researchers, teachers, and anyone interested in any of these areas.

Environmental Restoration

Science And Strategies For Restoring The Earth

Author: Restoring the Earth Conference,Restoring the Earth (Organization),University of California, Berkeley. Center for Environmental Design Research,San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9780933280939

Category: Nature

Page: 398

View: 6042


Environmental Restoration is the product of a ground-breaking conference on ecological restoration, held in January 1988 at the University of California, Berkeley. It offers an overview from the nation's leading experts of the most current techniques of restoration, including examples of the complex and subtle biological interactions we must understand to ensure success.Chapters cover restoration of agricultural lands, barrens, coastal ecosystems, prairies, and range lands. Additional sections address temperate forests and watersheds, mined lands, soil bioengineering, urban issues including waste treatment and solid, toxic, and radioactive waste management. The book also covers restoration of aquatic systems, includes chapters on strategic planning and land acquisition, and provides examples of successful projects.

Das Klima der bodennahen Luftschicht

Ein Lehrbuch der Mikroklimatologie

Author: Rudolf Geiger

Publisher: Springer Vieweg

ISBN: 9783658035181

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 646

View: 714


Die bodenenahe Luftschicht ist für viele Fragestellungen von besonderer Bedeutung, seien sie ökologischer Natur oder aus Interesse für energetische Nutzungen. Das vorliegende Buch gilt in der meteorologischen Literatur als bedeutender Meilenstein, Wendepunkt und Wegbereiter der Mikroklimatologie. Die Ergebnisse der Arbeiten Herrn Geigers haben dank der sorgfältigen und akribischen Arbeit immer noch Gültigkeit, auch wenn sich die Messmethoden im Laufe der Jahre verändert haben. Als Lehrbuch konzipiert, sind grundlegende Inhalte didaktisch anschaulich aufbereitet und bieten einen Zugang zu Konzepten und Literatur, auf die heutige Modelle und Computersimulationen zurückgreifen und aufbauen.

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Synthesis and Perspectives

Author: Michel Loreau,Shahid Naeem,Pablo Inchausti

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198515715

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 6832


'This is the hottest area in ecology and environmental sciences right now. I think this is an excellent proposal.' -Professor James Grover, University of Texas at Arlington, USA'The outline is excellent. This is going to be the hottest book in ecology over the next 5 to 10 years.' -Professor Michael Hochberg, Universite de Montpellier 2, FranceDetermining the scientific relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has now emerged as one of the most important challenges in ecological and environmental science. This book provides a timely synthesis and critical assessment in order to generate a consensus on the main issues involved and stimulate new perspectives for future research.

Soils of Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Characteristics, Ecology and Management

Author: Andreas Schulte

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540636076

Category: Nature

Page: 206

View: 5968


An understanding of the characteristics and the ecology of soils, particularly those of forest ecosystems in the humid tropics, is central to the development of sustainable forest management systems. The present book examines the contribution that forest soil science and forest ecology can make to sustainable land use in the humid tropics. Four main issues are addressed: characteristics and classification of forest soils, chemical and hydrological changes after forest utilization, soil fertility management in forest plantations and agroforestry systems as well as ecosystem studies from the dipterocarp forest region of Southeast Asia. Additionally, case studies include work from Guyana, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia and Nigeria. The papers have been developed from presentations given at the "International Congress on Soils of Tropical Forest Ecosystems/3rd Conference on Forest Soils" held in Balikpapan, Indonesia, and will be indispensable for all concerned with forest soil science and sustainable forestry in the humid tropics.

Permafrost Ecosystems

Siberian Larch Forests

Author: Akira Osawa,Olga A. Zyryanova,Yojiro Matsuura,Takuya Kajimoto,Ross W. Wein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402096938

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 6513


Drawing from a decade-long collaboration between Japan and Russia, this important volume presents the first major synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of the coniferous forests growing on permafrost at high latitudes. It presents ecological data for a region long inaccessible to most scientists, and raises important questions about the global carbon balance as these systems are affected by the changing climate. Making up around 20% of the entire boreal forests of the northern hemisphere, these ‘permafrost forest ecosystems’ are subject to particular constraints in terms of temperature, nutrient availability, and root space, creating exceptional ecosystem characteristics not known elsewhere. This authoritative text explores their diversity, structure, dynamics and physiology. It provides a comparison of these forests in relation to boreal forests elsewhere, and concludes with an assessment of the potential responses of this unique biome to climate change. The book will be invaluable to advanced students and researchers interested in boreal vegetation, forest ecology, silviculture and forest soils, as well as to researchers into climate change and the global carbon balance.


gymnasiale Oberstufe

Author: Neil A. Campbell,Jane B. Reece

Publisher: Pearson Deutschland GmbH

ISBN: 9783868949001


Page: 748

View: 4590


Die 8. Auflage des Campbell (deutsche Ausgabe BA 11/09) wurde jetzt unter Beachtung der hiesigen Lehrpläne für die Oberstufe bearbeitet und erschien in einem wesentlich handlicheren, schultaschenfähigen Format. Der Campbell hatte sich bereits früher als Zusatzlehrbuch für Leistungskurse Biologie und berufliche Gymnasien mit entsprechend fachlicher Ausrichtung bewährt. Diese für Schulen optimierte Ausgabe ist im Rahmen des Imprints Pearson Schule eine folgerichtige Edition (vgl. auch M. Kölling: "Einführung in Java mit Greenfoot"; R. Hattenhauer: "Informatik für Schule und Ausbildung", beide BA 9/10). Ein Themenband zur Ökologie ist für November diesen Jahres angekündigt. - Vorrangig ist der Band für Bibliotheken mit den oben angesprochenen Schultypen im Einzugsbereich zu empfehlen. Als allgemeines Biologielehrbuch ohne bundeslandspezifische Varianten ist der auch preislich sehr akzeptable Titel aufgrund seines fachlichen Niveaus und seiner grafisch hervorragenden Gestaltung auch darüber hinaus einsetzbar. (2 S)

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function

With 22 Tables

Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Harold A. Mooney

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540581031

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 525

View: 7479


With the accelerating loss of biodiversity there is increasing concern about how this loss may be affecting ecosystem processes, or services, that are of benefit to human well being. The limited studies that address the principal question directly, species numbers versus system function, are evaluated. Moreover, the degree of redundancy within systems, the ubiquity of keystone species, the tightness of species interactions from mutualisms to food webs, the resilience of systems to perturbation, the interactions of landscape units are explored, as is also how policy decisions are driven in this research area. This book brings together the disciplines of population biology and ecoysystem science, both directed toward evaluating the consequences of human-driven disruptions of natural systems.

Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive Species

Author: Paul F. Hendrix

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402054297

Category: Science

Page: 129

View: 3963


The papers in this book are based on efforts by an international group of soil ecologists to assess the biological and ecological mechanisms of earthworm invasions. They examine their geographic extent and impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, and possible means by which earthworm invasions might be mitigated. The book broadens the discussion on invasion biology and ecology to belowground systems.

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Long-Term Research on the Path to Sustainability

Author: Stephen K. Hamilton,Julie E. Doll,G. Philip Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266767

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 7631


Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Philip W. Rundel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540644750

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 447

View: 3715


Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.

Forest Ecosystems

Analysis at Multiple Scales

Author: Richard H. Waring,S. W. Running

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780127354439

Category: Nature

Page: 370

View: 8090


This book provides new methods of analysis by introducing new techniques to explore the changes in climatic cycles, the implications of wide-scale pollution, fire and other ecological disturbances that have a global effect on all life forms. It provides the reader with almost 40 percent new material in an attempt to organize principles and provide examples for expanding the horizon of ecosystem analyses. It also defines terms and explains concepts in a variety of ways by providing models, equations, graphs, and tabular examples. To help facilitate analysis, the book includes a CD-ROM with additional illustrations and Forest BGC software. * Additional coverage of regional and global scaling issues * New chapters on ecosystem modeling, remote sensing and monitoring of atmospheric chemistry added * Includes a CD-ROM with additional illustrations and Forest BGC Software