Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning

Contaminant Removal and Monitoring

Author: Rajiv Kohli

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 143777881X

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 3447

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In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Feature: Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Benefit: One-stop series where a wide range of readers will be sure to find a solution to their cleaning problem, saving the time involved in consulting a range of disparate sources. Feature: Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Benefit: Provides an authoritative resource Feature: Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art. Benefit: Can be relied on to provide insight, clarity and real expertise on up-to-the-minute innovations. Feature: Case studies included Benefit: Case studies help the reader see theory applied to the solution of real-world practical cleaning and contamination problems.

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 2

Particle Deposition, Control and Removal

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 9781437778304

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 3959

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Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. Topics covered include: A systems analysis approach to contamination control Physical factors that influence the behavior of particle deposition in enclosures An overview of current yield models and description of advanced models Types of strippable coatings, their properties and applications of these coatings for removal of surface contaminants In-depth coverage of ultrasonic cleaning Contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale Experimental results illustrating the impact of model parameters on the removal of particle contamination The expert contributions in this book provide a valuable source of information on the current status and recent developments in surface contamination and cleaning. The book will be of value to industry, government and academic personnel involved in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and procurement specifications across sectors including microelectronics, aerospace, optics, xerography and joining (adhesive bonding). ABOUT THE EDITORS Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program that is designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration. Kashmiri Lal "Kash" Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning, and in adhesion science and technology. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is the editor of 98 published books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. Also available Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects (edited by Rajiv Kohli & K.L. Mittal). ISBN: 9780815515555. · Provides guidance on best-practice cleaning techniques and the avoidance of surface contamination · Covers contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale · Includes an in-depth look at ultrasonic cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 2

Particle Deposition, Control and Removal

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 9781437778304

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 1722

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Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. Topics covered include: A systems analysis approach to contamination control Physical factors that influence the behavior of particle deposition in enclosures An overview of current yield models and description of advanced models Types of strippable coatings, their properties and applications of these coatings for removal of surface contaminants In-depth coverage of ultrasonic cleaning Contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale Experimental results illustrating the impact of model parameters on the removal of particle contamination The expert contributions in this book provide a valuable source of information on the current status and recent developments in surface contamination and cleaning. The book will be of value to industry, government and academic personnel involved in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and procurement specifications across sectors including microelectronics, aerospace, optics, xerography and joining (adhesive bonding). ABOUT THE EDITORS Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert with The Aerospace Corporation in contaminant particle behavior, surface cleaning, and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, he provides technical support for contamination control related to ground-based and manned spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program that is designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration. Kashmiri Lal "Kash" Mittal was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of surface contamination and cleaning, and in adhesion science and technology. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is the editor of 98 published books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. Also available Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects (edited by Rajiv Kohli & K.L. Mittal). ISBN: 9780815515555. · Provides guidance on best-practice cleaning techniques and the avoidance of surface contamination · Covers contamination and cleaning issues at the nanoscale · Includes an in-depth look at ultrasonic cleaning

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 4

Detection, Characterization, and Analysis of Contaminants

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437778844

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3330

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In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Vol 6

Methods of Cleaning and Cleanliness Verification

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437778801

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 4719

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In this series Rajiv Kohli and Kash Mittal have brought together the work of experts from different industry sectors and backgrounds to provide a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination. The expert contributions in this volume cover important fundamental aspects of surface contamination that are key to understanding the behavior of specific types of contaminants. This understanding is essential to develop preventative and mitigation methods for contamination control. The coverage complements the treatment of surface contamination in vol.1, Fundamental and Applied Aspects. This volume covers: Sources and Generation of Particles; Manipulation Techniques for Particles on Surfaces; Particle Deposition and Rebound; Particle Behavior in Liquid Systems; Biological and Metallic Contamination; and includes a comprehensive list of current standards and resources. Comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface contamination and cleaning Written by established experts in the contamination and cleaning field Each chapter is a comprehensive review of the state of the art Case studies included

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1

Fundamentals and Applied Aspects

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0323312705

Category: Science

Page: 894

View: 8090

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Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specification in a multitude of industries such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or those who handle the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries as spearheaded by the semiconductor industry Presents state-of-the-art survey information on precision cleaning and characterization methods as written by a team of world-class experts in the field

Particle Adhesion and Removal

Author: K. L. Mittal,Ravi Jaiswal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118831551

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 6537

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The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal. The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments. Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal. 2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal. 3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions. 4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and nanoscale particles. 5. Various factors affecting particle adhesion to a variety of substrates. 6. Surface modification techniques to modulate particle adhesion. 7. Various cleaning methods (both wet & dry) for particle removal. 8. Relevance of particle adhesion in a host of technologies ranging from simple to ultra-sophisticated.

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Cleanliness Validation and Verification

Author: Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0323311458

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 206

View: 4862

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As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others Includes new regulatory aspects

Dust Control and Air Cleaning

International Series of Monographs in Heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration

Author: R. G. Dorman

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148318689X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 636

View: 4941

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Dust Control and Air Cleaning covers various areas of concerns in the management of airborne particles and air sanitization. The title provides a comprehensive coverage of the methods in regulating air quality The coverage of the text includes airborne particles and health; the dynamics of particles; and sampling methods. The selection details various air purification methods and technologies such as removal of particles by wet scrubbing; cyclone dust separators; and filter materials and practical filters. The book will be of great use to student and professional building services engineers and technicians.

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing

Author: D. M. Mattox

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780080946580

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 944

View: 4177

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This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories,"" to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired. The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.

Particles on Surfaces 2

Detection, Adhesion, and Removal

Author: K.L. Mittal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461305314

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 8396

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This volume documents the proceedings of the Second Symposium on Particles on Surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal held as part of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society in Santa Clara, California, July 20-25, 1988. The premier symposium on this topic was l organized in 1986 and has been properly chronicled . Based on the success of these two events and the high interest evinced by the technical community, we plan to regularly hold symposia on this topic on a biennial basis and the next one is slated for August 20-24, 1990 in San Diego, California. l As pointed out in the Preface to the first volume , the topic of particles on surfaces is of paramount importance in legion of technological areas. Particularly in the semiconductor device fabrication area, all signals indicate that the understanding of the behavior of particles on surfaces and their removal will attain heightened importance in the times to come. As the device dimensions are shrinking at an accelerated pace, so the benign particles of today will become the killer defects in the not too distant future. The tempo of research and development activity in the field of particles on surfaces is very high, and better and novel ways are continuously being devised to remove smaller and smaller particles.

Surface Contamination and Cleaning

Author: K. L. Mittal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Architecture

Page: 364

View: 648

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This work constitutes the proceedings of the International Symposium on Surface Contamination and Cleaning, held in 2001. It contains a total of 24 papers, covering topics such as: mapping of surface contaminants; acceptable cleanliness levels; ionic contamination; and particle removal.

Ultra-Fine Particles

Exploratory Science and Technology

Author: Tyozi Uyeda,Chikara Hayashi,Akira Tasaki

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0815519419

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 467

View: 3107

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This book was written with several objectives in mind: 1. To share with as many scientists and engineers as possible the intriguing scientific aspects of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and to show their potential as new materials. 2. Entice such researchers to participate in the development of this emerging field. 3. To publicize the achievements of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, which was carried out under the auspices of the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology program (ERATO). In addition to the members of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, contributions from other pioneers in this field are included. To achieve the first objective described above, the uniformity of the contents and focus on a single central theme have been sacrificed somewhat to provide a broad coverage. It is expected that the reader can discover an appropriate topic for further development of new materials and basic technology by reading selected sections of this book. Alternately, one may gain an overview of this new field by reviewing the entire book, which can potentially lead to new directions in the development of UFPs.

Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080914251

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 4424

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For many decades, investigations of the behaviour and implications of radioactive contamination in the environment have focused on agricultural areas and food production. This was due to the erroneous assumption that the consequences of credible contaminating incidents would be restricted to rural areas. However, due to the Chernobyl accident, more than 250,000 persons were removed from their homes, demonstrating a great need for knowledge and instruments that could be applied to minimise the manifold adverse consequences of contamination in inhabited areas. Also, today the world is facing a number of new threats, including radiological terrorism, which would be likely to take place in a city, where most people would become directly affected. A recent report from the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism concludes that it is most likely that a large radiological, or even nuclear, terror attack on a major city somewhere in the world will occur before 2013. For the first time ever, the specific problems of airborne radioactive contamination in inhabited areas are treated in a holistically covering treatise, pinpointing factorial interdependencies and describing instruments for mitigation. The state-of-the-art knowledge is here explained in Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas y leading scientists in the various disciplines of relevance. Unique holistic description of airborne radioactive contamination of inhabited areas and its consequences State-of-the-art information on problems associated with both accidental and malicious contamination events, in particularly 'dirty bombs' Detailed description of processes and parameters governing the severity of contaminating incidents Written by key experts in the world

Cleaning and Surface Conditioning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing 10

Author: Takeshi Hattori

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 156677568X

Category: Semiconductor device

Page: 481

View: 6812

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This issue covers topics related to the removal of contaminants from and conditioning of Si (SOI), SiC, Ge, SiGe, and III-V semiconductor surfaces; cleaning media, including non-aqueous cleaning methods and tools; front- and back-end cleaning operations; integrated cleaning; cleaning of MEMS; photomasks (reticles); porous low-k dielectrics; post-CMP cleaning; wafer bevel cleaning and polishing; characterization, evaluation, and monitoring of cleaning; correlation with device performance as well as cleaning of equipment and storage and handling hardware. The hardcover edition includes a bonus CD-ROM of Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing 1989?2007: Proceedings from the ECS Semiconductor Cleaning Symposia 1?10. This bonus material is not available with the PDF edition.

Fundamentals of Contamination Control

Author: Alan C. Tribble

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819438447

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 176

View: 2259

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This Tutorial Text provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of contamination control, with specific applications to the aerospace industry. The author draws upon his many years as a practicing contamination control engineer, researcher, and teacher. The book examines methods to quantify the cleanliness level required by various contamination-sensitive surfaces and to predict the end-of-life contamination level for those surfaces, and it identifies contamination control techniques required to ensure mission success.

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water

Solutions for Improving Water Quality

Author: Anita Street,Richard Sustich,Jeremiah Duncan,Nora Savage

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1455731854

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 704

View: 4871

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Nanotechnology is already having a dramatic impact on improving water quality and the second edition of Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water highlights both the challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection. This book presents detailed information on cutting-edge technologies, current research, and trends that may impact the success and uptake of the applications. Recent advances show that many of the current problems with water quality can be addressed using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle enhanced filtration. The book describes these technologies in detail and demonstrates how they can provide clean drinking water in both large scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems. In addition, the book addresses the societal factors that may affect widespread acceptance of the applications. Sections are also featured on carbon nanotube arrays and graphene-based sensors for contaminant sensing, nanostructured membranes for water purification, and multifunctional materials in carbon microspheres for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Addresses both the technological aspects of delivering clean water supplies and the societal implications that affect take-up Details how the technologies are applied in large-scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems Highlights challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks

Guidelines for Investigation and Control

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241547227

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 146

View: 5229

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"These guidelines have been written for public health practitioners, food and health inspectors, district and national medical officers, laboratory personnel and others who may undertake or participate in the investigation and control of foodborne disease outbreaks."--P. 4 of cover.

Water Quality Assessments

A guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, Second Edition

Author: Deborah V Chapman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0419215905

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 756

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This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.

Drinking Water and Health,

Author: Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards,Safe Drinking Water Committee,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council,Commission on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309031982

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 5354

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