Designing Safer Polymers

Author: Paul T. Anastas,Paul H. Bickart,Mary M. Kirchhoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471397335

Category: Science

Page: 116

View: 5078


A guide to designing safer polymers based on the principles of green chemistry and the EPA's Polymer Exemption Rule Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is a powerful tool in designing safer polymers. By adhering to the principles of green chemistry, manufacturers can produce polymers that are better for the environment, and can do so in an economically sound manner. The Polymer Exemption Rule delineates types of polymers that are expected to be of reduced risk. By following the guidelines contained within the Polymer Exemption Rule, manufacturers may decrease their regulatory requirements while designing polymers that are environmentally benign. This valuable guide approaches the manufacture of polymers from two perspectives, incorporating the principles of green chemistry with the guidance of the Polymer Exemption Rule to design environmentally benign polymers. Designing Safer Polymers is an indispensable working resource for polymer scientists and engineers, as well as corporate decision makers working in the polymer and chemical industries.

Expert Systems in Chemistry Research

Author: Markus C. Hemmer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420053241

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8875


Expert systems allow scientists to access, manage, and apply data and specialized knowledge from various disciplines to their own research. Expert Systems in Chemistry Research explains the general scientific basis and computational principles behind expert systems and demonstrates how they can improve the efficiency of scientific workflows and support decision-making processes. Focused initially on clarifying the fundamental concepts, limits, and drawbacks of using computer software to approach human decision making, the author also underscores the importance of putting theory into practice. The book highlights current capabilities for planning and monitoring experiments, scientific data management and interpretation, chemical characterization, problem solving, and methods for encoding chemical data. It also examines the challenges as well as requirements, strategies, and considerations for implementing expert systems effectively in an existing laboratory software environment. Expert Systems in Chemistry Research covers various artificial intelligence technologies used to support expert systems, including nonlinear statistics, wavelet transforms, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic. This definitive text provides researchers, scientists, and engineers with a cornerstone resource for developing new applications in chemoinformatics, systems design, and other emerging fields.

Green Polymerization Methods

Renewable Starting Materials, Catalysis and Waste Reduction

Author: Robert T. Mathers,Michael A. R. Meier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527636174

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 380

View: 1562


Designing polymers and developing polymerization processes that are safe, prevent pollution, and are more efficient in the use of materials and engergy is an important topic in modern chemistry. Today, green polymer research can be seen increasingly in academia nd industry. It tackles all aspects of polymers and polymerization - everything from chemical feedstocks, synthetic pathways, and reaction media to the nature of the final polymer as related to its inherent nontoxicity or degradability. This book summarizes and evaluates the latest developments in green polymerization methods. Specifically, new catalytic methods and processes which incorporate renewable resources will be discussed by leading experts in the field of polymer chemistry. This book is a must-have for Polymer Chemists, Chemists Working with/on Organometallics, Biochemists, Physical Chemists, Chemical Engineers, Biotechnologists, Materials Scientists, and Catalytic Chemists.

Plastics and Sustainability

Towards a Peaceful Coexistence between Bio-based and Fossil Fuel-based Plastics

Author: Michael Tolinski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118217837

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 7858


Clearly lays out the issues related to plastics' effects on the environment, while also serving as a practical, non-academic guide for making sustainability decisions about plastics recycling and the newest bio-based plastics Company managers, product developers, policy makers, environmental researchers, and plastics industry engineers are under increasing pressure to find ways of minimizing the environmental footprint of plastic products. This accessible book is designed to help readers understand the life-cycle impacts of various plastics, clarifying the technical research and practical arguments to show when bio-based and recycled plastics might be useful options for reducing the overall energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste associated with traditional plastics. Plastics and Sustainability compares traditional fossil fuel-based plastics with bio-based plastics in terms of properties, environmental impacts, and costs -- indicating what the most effective approaches could be for using recycled, biodegradable, or various bio-based materials. The book makes objective comparisons between bioplastics and all commonly used plastics, focusing on how they affect production economics, product requirements, and retailer and consumer needs. It incorporates research concerning life-cycle assessment, production techniques, and commercial applications, and presents "green" guidelines about product design, recycling, processing efficiency, and material selection. The book also reports on recent industry developments and commercial trends in an effort to synthesize conclusions that are necessary for finding the right balance between bio-based and fossil-fuel based plastic products. Check out the author's blog at

Polymers and the Environment

Author: G Scott

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1847551726

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 144

View: 521


As environmental performance becomes increasingly important, the development of man-made polymers and their associated benefits has been overshadowed by problems relating to their ultimate disposal. In the light of wider acceptance of polymers for use in high technology applications, Polymers and the Environment aims to redress the balance. The book reviews the properties and industrial applications of polymers and discusses their environmental benefits compared with traditional materials. It also addresses the issues of polymer durability, recycling processes to aid waste minimization and biodegradable polymers. This text is intended to introduce the non-specialist reader to the benefits and limitations of polymeric materials from an environmental viewpoint, and will prove a useful book for both students and professionals.

Designing Safe Road Systems

A Human Factors Perspective

Author: Jan Theeuwes,Richard van der Horst

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317152131

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 192

View: 8407


Many books focus on individual differences and how those relate to traffic safety such as accident proneness, gender differences, age, alcohol, and the effects of drugs. Others focus on the safety effects regarding the vehicle such as airbags, anti-lock brakes, navigation systems, intelligent cruise control and other new gadgets coming to the vehicle. Even though these topics are undoubtedly important for traffic safety, this book takes a unique approach as it focuses solely on the road environment. Designing Safe Road Systems provides the background for those who want to know more about the effects of road design on driving behaviour. It uses a systems approach to allow a better understanding of why and in what circumstances drivers may commit errors. This understanding will ultimately lead to road systems that prevent (fatal) errors from occurring. The book contains an overview of the current models and theories about human performance and human behaviour in traffic that are relevant for all those involved in designing safe road systems. The central theme of this book is how design principles can reduce the probability of an error while driving. The authors demonstrate how knowledge of human factors helps a road authority to better understand how road users behave. They argue that in many cases the design of the environment can be further adjusted to human capabilities, and that safety should be considered a system property to be built into the road system.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

New Strategies and Mechanisms

Author: T. Richard Hull,Baljinder K. Kandola

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854041494

Category: Science

Page: 433

View: 5674


The latest developments in fire retardancy of polymeric materials, including new systems, formulations and test-methods are detailed in this book.

Introduction to Physical Polymer Science

Author: L. H. Sperling

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119103746

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 880

View: 2181


An Updated Edition of the Classic Text Polymers constitute the basis for the plastics, rubber, adhesives, fiber, and coating industries. The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Physical Polymer Science acknowledges the industrial success of polymers and the advancements made in the field while continuing to deliver the comprehensive introduction to polymer science that made its predecessors classic texts. The Fourth Edition continues its coverage of amorphous and crystalline materials, glass transitions, rubber elasticity, and mechanical behavior, and offers updated discussions of polymer blends, composites, and interfaces, as well as such basics as molecular weight determination. Thus, interrelationships among molecular structure, morphology, and mechanical behavior of polymers continue to provide much of the value of the book. Newly introduced topics include: * Nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes and exfoliated montmorillonite clays * The structure, motions, and functions of DNA and proteins, as well as the interfaces of polymeric biomaterials with living organisms * The glass transition behavior of nano-thin plastic films In addition, new sections have been included on fire retardancy, friction and wear, optical tweezers, and more. Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, Fourth Edition provides both an essential introduction to the field as well as an entry point to the latest research and developments in polymer science and engineering, making it an indispensable text for chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and polymer science and engineering students and professionals.

Polymer Reaction Engineering

Author: Jose Asua

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691425

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 6512


Polymers are an example of “products-by-process”, where the final product properties are mostly determined during manufacture, in the reactor. An understanding of processes occurring in the polymerization reactor is therefore crucial to achieving efficient, consistent, safe and environmentally friendly production of polymeric materials. Polymer Reaction Engineering provides the link between the fundamentals of polymerization kinetics and polymer microstructure achieved in the reactor. Organized according to the type of polymerization, each chapter starts with a description of the main polymers produced by the particular method, their key microstructural features and their applications Polymerization kinetics and its effect on reactor configuration, mass and energy balances and scale-up are covered in detail. The text is illustrated with examples emphasizing general concepts, principles and methodology. Written as an authoritative guide for chemists and chemical engineers in industry and academe, Polymer Reaction Engineering will also be a key reference source for advanced courses in polymer chemistry and technology.

Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology

Author: Herman F. Mark

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471287810

Category: Science

Page: 3112

View: 5804


This is the third Edition is a completely new version in a new century of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. The new edition will bring the state-of-the-art up to the 21st century, with coverage of nanotechnology, new imaging and analytical techniques, new methods of controlled polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more. New topics covered include nanotechnology, AFM, MALDI, biomimetics, and genetic methods, of increasing importance since 1990 and will also bring up-to-date coverage of traditional topics of continuing interest. This edition will publish in 3 Parts of 4 volumes each. Each Part will be an A-Z selection of the newest articles available in the online edition of this encyclopedia. A list of the titles to appear in Part I can be viewed by clicking "What's New" at Titles for Parts II and III will appear there as well when available.

Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

Author: De-Yi Wang

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081001630

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 342

View: 2830


Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials reviews the latest scientific developments and technological advances in the design and manufacture of fire retardant polymers and composite materials. Fire retardant polymeric materials are used in a broad range of applications in fields such as aviation, automotive, computer, construction, electronics, and telecommunications. It is essential to have a better understanding of the scientific technology used in the design and manufacture of fire-resistant materials and their end products. This book includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA, etc. Provides cutting-edge research in flame retardant materials, relevant to both scientific and industrial applications Presents the latest and most up-to-date fire retardant technologies Discusses the most popular fire retardant polymer systems Includes the latest developments in fire retardant technologies for different polymeric material systems, such as PU, PP, PE, PLA, epoxy, rubber, textile, phenol resin, and PA

Indirect Food Additives and Polymers

Migration and Toxicology

Author: Victor O. Sheftel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 148229382X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1320

View: 4260


Now, more than ever, foods come packaged in containers designed for direct cooking or heating, which often causes the movement of substances - indirect additives - into foods. Because of their unique characteristics, plastics or polymeric materials (PM) have become the most important packaging material for food products. The safety assessment of plastics intended for use in contact with foodstuffs or drinking water continues to present a serious challenge. Indirect Food Additives and Polymers: Migration and Toxicology studies the potential hazards of indirect additives for human health and develops recommendations for their safe manufacture and use. It contains an impressive review of basic regulatory, toxicological, and other scientific information necessary to identify, characterize, measure, and predict the hazards of nearly 2,000 plastic-like materials employed in packaging. The author presents the data underlying federal regulations - previously unavailable a single volume. The entry for each chemical provides: Prime Name Molecular or Structural Formula Molecular Mass Synonyms CAS Number RTECS number Properties Application and Exposure Migration Data Acute Toxicity Repeated Exposure Short-Term Toxicity Long-Term Toxicity Immunotoxicity of Allergenic Effect Reproductive Toxicity Mutagenicity Carcinogenicity Chemobiokinetics Standards Guidelines Regulations Recommendations References International in scope, the Handbook of Indirect Polymeric Additives in Food and Water: Migration and Toxicology offers comprehensive data on the toxic effects of polymeric materials and their ingredients. You will find the most information on plastics and polymeric materials- their migration and toxicology - in this resource.

Compostable Polymer Materials

Author: Ewa Rudnik

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080560847

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 1888


Compostable Polymer Materials deals with an environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book provides up–to-date results and information about compostable polymer materials in a coherent and comprehensive manner. It covers the entire spectrum of preparation, properties, degradation, and environmental issues. The emphasis is on recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxicological assessment of polymer materials-–important issues from the ecological point of view. Moreover, the thermal behavior of compostable polymers is described. Their price evolution over the past decade, an estimation of the market and future perspectives are presented. Focus on the composting process, compostability standards, compost quality and composting studies Coherent and uniformly presented information about methods of preparation; properties, processing and applications Up-to-date information on ecotoxicity testing and studies of polymers Overview of thermal stability and thermal degradation process of compostable polymer materials Presents future perspectives of compostable polymers, including evolution of price during last decade Information about waste management evolution in Europe, USA and Asia (China) with emphasis on composting during the last decade

Natural Fiber-Reinforced Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Polymer Composites

Author: Alan Kin-tak Lau,Ada Pui Yan Hung

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081006691

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 6411


Natural Fiber-Reinforced Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Polymer Composites focuses on key areas of fundamental research and applications of biocomposites. Several key elements that affect the usage of these composites in real-life applications are discussed. There will be a comprehensive review on the different kinds of biocomposites at the beginning of the book, then the different types of natural fibers, bio-polymers, and green nanoparticle biocomposites are discussed as well as their potential for future development and use in engineering biomedical and domestic products. Recently mankind has realized that unless the environment is protected, he himself will be threatened by the over consumption of natural resources as well as a substantial reduction in the amount of fresh air produced in the world. Conservation of forests and the optimal utilization of agricultural and other renewable resources like solar, wind, and tidal energy, have become important topics worldwide. With such concern, the use of renewable resources—such as plant and animal-based, fiber-reinforced polymeric composites—are now becoming an important design criterion for designing and manufacturing components for a broad range of different industrial products. Research on biodegradable polymeric composites can contribute, to some extent, to a much greener and safer environment. For example, in the biomedical and bioengineering fields, the use of natural fiber mixed with biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers can produce joint and bone fixtures to alleviate pain in patients. Includes comprehensive information about the sources, properties, and biodegradability of natural fibers Discusses failure mechanisms and modeling of natural fibers composites Analyzes the effectiveness of using natural materials for enhancing mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties

The BP Oil Spill

Accounting for the Spilled Oil and Ensuring the Safety of Seafood from the Gulf : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, August 19, 2010

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment

Publisher: N.A


Category: BP Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill, 2010

Page: 106

View: 9695


Polymeric Chiral Catalyst Design and Chiral Polymer Synthesis

Author: Shinichi Itsuno

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118063958

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 2581


This book reviews chiral polymer synthesis and its application to asymmetric catalysis. It features the design and use of polymer-immobilized catalysts and methods for their design and synthesis. Chapters cover peptide-catalyzed and enantioselective synthesis, optically-active polymers, and continuous flow processes. It collects recent advances in an important field of polymer and organic chemistry, with leading researchers explaining applications in academic and industry R & D.