Chemistry in Aqueous and Non-aqueous Solvents

Author: Mido & S. Taguchi

Publisher: Discovery Publishing House

ISBN: 9788171413317


Page: 166

View: 611


Contents: Aqueous Solution Chemistry, Acids and Bases, Solute-Solvent Interactions, Chemistry in Protonic Solvents Liquid Ammonia, Liquid Hydrogen, Fluoride, Sulphuric, Acid, Liquid, Hydrogen, Cyanide, Acetic Acid and Liquid Hydrogen Sulphide, Non- Protonic Solvents Liquid Dinitrogen Tetroxide, Liquid Sulphur, Dioxide and Liquid Halides.

Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents

Author: B. Trémillon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401021236

Category: Science

Page: 285

View: 3838


Arising no doubt from its pre-eminence as a natural liquid, water has always been considered by chemists as the original solvent in which very varied chemical reactions can take place, both for preparational and for analytical purposes. This explains the very long-standing interest shown in the study of aqueous solutions. In this con nection, it must be stressed that the theory of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, was originally devised solely for solutions in water and that the first true concept of acidity resulting from this is linked to the use of this solvent. The more recent development of numerous physico-chemical measurement methods has made possible an increase of knowledge in this area up to an extremely advanced degree of systematization. Thus today we have available both a very large amount of experimental data, together with very refined methods of deduction and of quantitative treatment of chemical reactions in solution which enable us to make the fullest use of this data. Nevertheless, . it appears quite evident at present that there are numerous chemical processes which cannot take place in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 INTRODUCTION limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it was natural that interest should be attracted to solvents other than water and that the new possibilities thus opened up should be explored.

Non-aqueous Solvents

Author: John R. Chipperfield

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198502593

Category: Science

Page: 86

View: 1053


Solvents other than water are used in chemical analysis, chemical manufacturing, and in specialized syntheses. This book covers the principles and uses of non-aqueous solvents at a level suitable for first or second-year undergraduates. The book first discusses the general properties of solvents, and introduces the necessary concepts for making rational choices of solvents for different applications. There is a discussion of the various chemical interactions between solvents and the substances dissolved in them, and how solvents change the course of reactions. The chemistry of 16 common solvents is discussed, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The book concludes with an account of the chemistry of molten salts and discusses the use of low melting temperature compounds as synthetic media. The book expands on the brief treatment of non-aqueous solvents given in many textbooks while avoiding the complexities introduced in research treatises. It is the only book currently available that provides an in-depth treatment accessible to undergraduates.

Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents

Methods and Protocols

Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson,Peter J. Halling,Herbert L. Holland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591124

Category: Science

Page: 679

View: 9849


In recent years, enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents-as opposed to aqueous solutions-has gained considerable attention as a powerful new approach to the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. In Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols, leading chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and process engineers summarize for the first time a wide range of methods for executing enzymatic transformations under nonaqueous conditions. Each method includes detailed step-by-step instructions for its successful completion, a list of materials, and ancillary notes that explain the scientific basis of the procedure, as well as troubleshooting. Also provided are a generic description of key reactions, advice on biocatalyst preparation, discussion of reaction conditions, and instructions on bioreactor design. Comprehensive and state-of-the-art, Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols offers today's synthetic chemists, biochemists, and process engineers all the essential information needed to carry out enzymatic reactions in nonaqueous media, as well as to successfully scale up to production quantities.

Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions

Author: Kosuke Izutsu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527629169

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1372


An excellent resource for all graduate students and researchers using electrochemical techniques. After introducing the reader to the fundamentals, the book focuses on the latest developments in the techniques and applications in this field. This second edition contains new material on environmentally-friendly solvents, such as room-temperature ionic liquids.

The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents V4

Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents

Author: J J Lagowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323139388

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 8891


The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed by four spectroscopic techniques; the different methods used in studying redox systems in nonaqueous solvents such as potentiometry and steady state diffusion methods; and the use of tetramethylurea as a nonaqueous medium for chemical reactions and chemical investigations. The reader is also introduced to inorganic acid chlorides of high dielectric constant, with special reference to antimony trichloride, and preparation methods for cyclic carbonates including vinylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and butylene carbonate. The book concludes with a chapter on sulfolane, focusing on its preparation and purification, physical properties, and toxicology. This book will be of interest to chemists who want to know more about nonaqueous solvents.

Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents

Author: Huber Walter

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323158609

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

View: 2838


Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents discuss the theory, practice, and data on acidic and basic strength of nonaqueous solvents. This book is organized into three parts encompassing six chapters. The first part considers the general principles of acids and bases and methods of end-point determination. This part also covers the fundamentals, advantages, and limitations of titration instruments, such as potentiometers, burets, titration vessels, and electrodes. The classification of titration solvents according to their functions as color indicators and titrant solutions is provided in this part. The remaining parts describe the analytical procedures for acidity and basicity of nonaqueous solvents. These parts also provide a tabulated data on the acidic and basic strengths, stability, and dissociation constants of various titration solvents. Analytical chemists, and analytical chemistry teachers and students will find this book invaluable.

Chemistry in Anhydrous, Prototropic Solvents

Inorganic Chemistry in Liquid Hydrogen Cyanide and Liquid Hydrogen Fluoride

Author: Barbara Grüttner,Michael F. A. Dove,Alan F. Clifford

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483161005

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 9308


Chemistry in Nonaqueous Ionizing Solvents: Volume II — Part 1 investigates the chemical and physico-chemical properties of substances dissolved or suspended in non-aqueous ionizing solvents (also known as water-like solvents). This volume is concerned with chemistry in anhydrous hydrogen cyanide and with inorganic chemistry in liquid hydrogen fluoride. This book is comprised of 35 chapters that cover topics ranging from commercial preparation of hydrogen fluoride to laboratory preparation of pure hydrogen fluoride as well as deuterium and tritium fluorides. Experimental techniques and the apparatus used in investigations of liquid hydrogen fluoride are also described. Subsequent chapters explore health risks and first aid with respect to handling hydrogen fluoride; physical properties of the pure solvent; inorganic solvates; solubilities and reactions of inorganic compounds; and acids and bases and their reactions with each other. The last two chapters are devoted to fluorides of the lanthanides and actinides in hydrogen fluoride. This monograph will be of interest to chemists.

The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents III

Author: J.J. Lagowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323151035

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 5455


The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume III: Inert, Aprotic, and Acidic Solvents is a compilation of critical surveys of specific solvent systems. The compendium contains discussions on the solution chemistry of sulfur dioxide and acyl halides; the solvent properties of hydrogen sulfide and carboxylic acids; and the Bronsted acid-base behavior in inert organic solvents. Chemists, researchers, and students of chemistry and chemical engineering will find the book a good reference material.

Acids and Bases

Solvent Effects on Acid-Base Strength

Author: Brian G. Cox

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191649341

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 6726


Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented. Fundamental background material is provided in the initial chapters: quantitative aspects of acid-base equilibria, including definitions and relationships between solution pH and species distribution; the influence of molecular structure on acid strengths; and acidity in aqueous solution. Solvent properties are reviewed, along with the magnitude of the interaction energies of solvent molecules with (especially) ions; the ability of solvents to participate in hydrogen bonding and to accept or donate electron pairs is seen to be crucial. Experimental methods for determining dissociation constants are described in detail. In the remaining chapters, dissociation constants of a wide range of acids in three distinct classes of solvents are discussed: protic solvents, such as alcohols, which are strong hydrogen-bond donors; basic, polar aprotic solvents, such as dimethylformamide; and low-basicity and low polarity solvents, such as acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran. Dissociation constants of individual acids vary over more than 20 orders of magnitude among the solvents, and there is a strong differentiation between the response of neutral and charged acids to solvent change. Ion-pairing and hydrogen-bonding equilibria, such as between phenol and phenoxide ions, play an increasingly important role as the solvent polarity decreases, and their influence on acid-base equilibria and salt formation is described.

Organic Synthesis with Enzymes in Non-Aqueous Media

Author: Giacomo Carrea,Sergio Riva

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527621733

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 5909


Closing a gap in the literature, this comprehensive book examines and discusses different non-aqueous systems from organic solvents to ionic liquids for synthetic applications, thus opening the door to new successful methods for biocatalytic reactions. It gathers into one handy source the information otherwise widely spread throughout the literature, combining useful background information with a number of synthetic examples, including industrial scale processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals. Extremely well structured, the text introduces the fundamentals of non-aqueous enzymology, before going on to new reaction media and synthetic applications using hydrolases and non-hydrolytic enzymes. The one-stop reference for everyone working in this hot field.

The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents VB

Acid and Aprotic Solvents

Author: J.J. Lagowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323153321

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 7074


The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume V: Acidic and Aprotic Solvents, Part B covers the theoretical aspects of individual solvents in nonaqueous solution chemistry. This volume is divided into five chapters. The first two chapters discuss the purification, structure, physical properties, electrochemistry, solubilities, and reactions of specific solvents, including trifluoroacetic and halosulfuric acids. Chapter 3 deals briefly with the preparations and properties of the interhalogens, principally in the liquid state. This chapter emphasizes their uses as nonaqueous solvents, especially through extensive study of their acid-base reactions. Spectroscopic data and their contribution to the understanding of their solution chemistries are also considered. Chapter 4 surveys the autoionization, purification methods, solubilities, solvolytic reactions, conductivity, conductometric, potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and visual titrations, as well as the isolation of solid complexes in inorganic halides and oxyhalides. Chapter 5 describes the solubility, reactivity, and spectroscopic data of molten salts. This book is of value to analytical chemists, and analytical chemistry teachers and students.

Coordination Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions

Author: Victor Gutmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709181941

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 2485


Considerable attention has been focussed on non-aqueous chemistry in the last decade and this situation has arisen no doubt from a realization of the vast application of this branch of chemistry. Within this field much energetic work has been channelled into the determination of the coordination chemistry of tran sition metals in these solvent 8ystems. Elaborate experimental techniques have been developed to discover, in particular, the magnetic and spectral properties of complex compounds, and the theoretical background of such systems has been expanded to corroborate, as far as possible, the experimental results. This text has, however, a different bias from many books currently available on this branch of chemistry, and is designed to be a survey of known facts on many of the non-aqueous solvents currently in use mainly in the field of halogen chemistry, together with a discussion of these facts in the light of accepted principles. As such, it is hoped to close a gap in the literature of which many workers and advanced students in this field will be aware. The treatment is meant to be selective rather than completely comprehensive and must unevitably reflect some of the special interests of the author.

Non-Aqueous Solvents in Inorganic Chemistry

The Commonwealth and International Library: Chemistry Division

Author: A. K. Holliday,A. G. Massey

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483159418

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 5108


Non-Aqueous Solvents in Inorganic Chemistry gives a concise treatment of the important inorganic non-aqueous solvents, emphasizing why they do in fact exhibit solvent power, how they are prepared and handled experimentally, how they can be used as media for the synthesis or analysis of inorganic and organometallic compounds, and how far the various acid-base concepts can be useful in accounting for many (but not all) of the reactions observed. This book is intended primarily for the undergraduate reader—both for the intending Chemistry Honours or R.I.C. graduate and the non-specialist student of chemistry. The subject matter is presented in a simple and readable form, without the inclusion of elaborate tables of properties and with the minimum of detail necessary for comprehension. Therefore, those working for the A- and S-level chemistry examinations for the G.C.E. could read much of the book with profit; and the research student who aspires to work in the field of non-aqueous solvents will, it is hoped, find this book a useful introduction to a fascinating branch of inorganic chemistry.