Chemistry in Aqueous and Non-aqueous Solvents

Author: Mido & S. Taguchi

Publisher: Discovery Publishing House

ISBN: 9788171413317


Page: 166

View: 7830


Contents: Aqueous Solution Chemistry, Acids and Bases, Solute-Solvent Interactions, Chemistry in Protonic Solvents Liquid Ammonia, Liquid Hydrogen, Fluoride, Sulphuric, Acid, Liquid, Hydrogen, Cyanide, Acetic Acid and Liquid Hydrogen Sulphide, Non- Protonic Solvents Liquid Dinitrogen Tetroxide, Liquid Sulphur, Dioxide and Liquid Halides.

Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents

Author: B. Trémillon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401021236

Category: Science

Page: 285

View: 5296


Arising no doubt from its pre-eminence as a natural liquid, water has always been considered by chemists as the original solvent in which very varied chemical reactions can take place, both for preparational and for analytical purposes. This explains the very long-standing interest shown in the study of aqueous solutions. In this con nection, it must be stressed that the theory of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, was originally devised solely for solutions in water and that the first true concept of acidity resulting from this is linked to the use of this solvent. The more recent development of numerous physico-chemical measurement methods has made possible an increase of knowledge in this area up to an extremely advanced degree of systematization. Thus today we have available both a very large amount of experimental data, together with very refined methods of deduction and of quantitative treatment of chemical reactions in solution which enable us to make the fullest use of this data. Nevertheless, . it appears quite evident at present that there are numerous chemical processes which cannot take place in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 INTRODUCTION limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it was natural that interest should be attracted to solvents other than water and that the new possibilities thus opened up should be explored.

Non-Aqueous Solvents in Inorganic Chemistry

The Commonwealth and International Library: Chemistry Division

Author: A. K. Holliday,A. G. Massey

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483159418

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 2858


Non-Aqueous Solvents in Inorganic Chemistry gives a concise treatment of the important inorganic non-aqueous solvents, emphasizing why they do in fact exhibit solvent power, how they are prepared and handled experimentally, how they can be used as media for the synthesis or analysis of inorganic and organometallic compounds, and how far the various acid-base concepts can be useful in accounting for many (but not all) of the reactions observed. This book is intended primarily for the undergraduate reader—both for the intending Chemistry Honours or R.I.C. graduate and the non-specialist student of chemistry. The subject matter is presented in a simple and readable form, without the inclusion of elaborate tables of properties and with the minimum of detail necessary for comprehension. Therefore, those working for the A- and S-level chemistry examinations for the G.C.E. could read much of the book with profit; and the research student who aspires to work in the field of non-aqueous solvents will, it is hoped, find this book a useful introduction to a fascinating branch of inorganic chemistry.

Characterization of Solutes in Nonaqueous Solvents

Proceedings of a Symposium on Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterization of Solute Specie

Author: Mamantov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461339820

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 6589


This book consists of contributions by participants in the Symposium "Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterizat.ion of Solute Species in Non~Aqueous Solvents" which took place at the American Chemical Society Meeting, Division of Analytical Chemistry, August 31 and September I, 1976, San Francisco, California. The manuscripts were submitted to the editor during the first half of 1977 and, in most cases, represent reviews of selected research topics in the broad area of characterization of solute species in non~aqueous solvents. In organizing this Symposium, I attempted to bring together a significantly large group of research workers involved in spectro scopic and electrochemical studies in the three large classes of non-aqueous solvents ~ organic solvents, covalent inorganic sol vents and molten salts. The experimental apprcaches and problems, such as avoidance of traces of moisture and oxygen, are frequently similar for all types of non-aqueous solvents. It is hoped that this volume will be useful to all concerned with chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. Gleb l>lamantov , Contents 1. IDENTIFICATION AND SYSTEMIZATION OF SOLVENT PROPERTIES INVOLVED IN THE LIGAND SUBSTITUTION KINETICS OF LABILE COMPLEXES OF NICKEL(II) J. F. Coetzee, D. Frollini, C. G. Karakatsanis, E. J.

Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions

Author: Kosuke Izutsu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527629169

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 4888


An excellent resource for all graduate students and researchers using electrochemical techniques. After introducing the reader to the fundamentals, the book focuses on the latest developments in the techniques and applications in this field. This second edition contains new material on environmentally-friendly solvents, such as room-temperature ionic liquids.

The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents VB

Acid and Aprotic Solvents

Author: J.J. Lagowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323153321

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 1970


The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume V: Acidic and Aprotic Solvents, Part B covers the theoretical aspects of individual solvents in nonaqueous solution chemistry. This volume is divided into five chapters. The first two chapters discuss the purification, structure, physical properties, electrochemistry, solubilities, and reactions of specific solvents, including trifluoroacetic and halosulfuric acids. Chapter 3 deals briefly with the preparations and properties of the interhalogens, principally in the liquid state. This chapter emphasizes their uses as nonaqueous solvents, especially through extensive study of their acid-base reactions. Spectroscopic data and their contribution to the understanding of their solution chemistries are also considered. Chapter 4 surveys the autoionization, purification methods, solubilities, solvolytic reactions, conductivity, conductometric, potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and visual titrations, as well as the isolation of solid complexes in inorganic halides and oxyhalides. Chapter 5 describes the solubility, reactivity, and spectroscopic data of molten salts. This book is of value to analytical chemists, and analytical chemistry teachers and students.

The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents VA

Principles and Applications

Author: J.J. Lagowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323156312

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 4961


The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume V-A: Principles and Basic Solvents provides the theoretical aspects of nonaqueous solution chemistry independent of solvent and information on individual solvent systems. This volume contains chapters on solvation and complex formation in protic and aprotic solvents; solvent basicity; ion-selective electrodes in nonaqueous solvents; nonaqueous solvents in organic electroanalytical chemistry; and anhydrous hydrazine and water-hydrazine mixtures. Chemists, researchers, and students of chemistry and chemical engineering will find the book a good reference material.

Coordination Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions

Author: Victor Gutmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709181941

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 2064


Considerable attention has been focussed on non-aqueous chemistry in the last decade and this situation has arisen no doubt from a realization of the vast application of this branch of chemistry. Within this field much energetic work has been channelled into the determination of the coordination chemistry of tran sition metals in these solvent 8ystems. Elaborate experimental techniques have been developed to discover, in particular, the magnetic and spectral properties of complex compounds, and the theoretical background of such systems has been expanded to corroborate, as far as possible, the experimental results. This text has, however, a different bias from many books currently available on this branch of chemistry, and is designed to be a survey of known facts on many of the non-aqueous solvents currently in use mainly in the field of halogen chemistry, together with a discussion of these facts in the light of accepted principles. As such, it is hoped to close a gap in the literature of which many workers and advanced students in this field will be aware. The treatment is meant to be selective rather than completely comprehensive and must unevitably reflect some of the special interests of the author.

Non-aqueous Solvents

Author: John R. Chipperfield

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198502593

Category: Science

Page: 86

View: 7649


Solvents other than water are used in chemical analysis, chemical manufacturing, and in specialized syntheses. This book covers the principles and uses of non-aqueous solvents at a level suitable for first or second-year undergraduates. The book first discusses the general properties of solvents, and introduces the necessary concepts for making rational choices of solvents for different applications. There is a discussion of the various chemical interactions between solvents and the substances dissolved in them, and how solvents change the course of reactions. The chemistry of 16 common solvents is discussed, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The book concludes with an account of the chemistry of molten salts and discusses the use of low melting temperature compounds as synthetic media. The book expands on the brief treatment of non-aqueous solvents given in many textbooks while avoiding the complexities introduced in research treatises. It is the only book currently available that provides an in-depth treatment accessible to undergraduates.

Nonaqueous Electrochemistry

Author: Doron Aurbach

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824741389

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 7094


An examination of applications of electrochemical techniques to many organic and inorganic compounds that are either unstable or insoluble in water. It focuses on the continuing drive toward miniaturization in electronics met by designs for high-energy density batteries (based on nonaqueous systems). It addresses applications to nonaqueous batteries, supercapacitators, highly sensitive reagents, and electroorganic and electroinorganic synthesis.

Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents

Methods and Protocols

Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson,Peter J. Halling,Herbert L. Holland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591124

Category: Science

Page: 679

View: 2789


In recent years, enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents-as opposed to aqueous solutions-has gained considerable attention as a powerful new approach to the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. In Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols, leading chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and process engineers summarize for the first time a wide range of methods for executing enzymatic transformations under nonaqueous conditions. Each method includes detailed step-by-step instructions for its successful completion, a list of materials, and ancillary notes that explain the scientific basis of the procedure, as well as troubleshooting. Also provided are a generic description of key reactions, advice on biocatalyst preparation, discussion of reaction conditions, and instructions on bioreactor design. Comprehensive and state-of-the-art, Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols offers today's synthetic chemists, biochemists, and process engineers all the essential information needed to carry out enzymatic reactions in nonaqueous media, as well as to successfully scale up to production quantities.

Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents

Author: Huber Walter

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323158609

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

View: 3260


Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents discuss the theory, practice, and data on acidic and basic strength of nonaqueous solvents. This book is organized into three parts encompassing six chapters. The first part considers the general principles of acids and bases and methods of end-point determination. This part also covers the fundamentals, advantages, and limitations of titration instruments, such as potentiometers, burets, titration vessels, and electrodes. The classification of titration solvents according to their functions as color indicators and titrant solutions is provided in this part. The remaining parts describe the analytical procedures for acidity and basicity of nonaqueous solvents. These parts also provide a tabulated data on the acidic and basic strengths, stability, and dissociation constants of various titration solvents. Analytical chemists, and analytical chemistry teachers and students will find this book invaluable.