Biology of Root Formation and Development

Author: Arie Altman,Yoav Waisel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461554039

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 2838

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This book contains the majority of the presentations of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Root Formation and Development that was hcld in Jerusa lem, Israel, June 23---28, 1996. Following the First Symposium on the Biology of Adventi tious Root Formation, held in Dallas. USA, 1993, we perceived the need to include all kinds of roots, not only the shoot-borne ones. The endogenous signals that control root formation. and the subsequent growth and development processes, are very much alike, re gardless of the sites and sources of origin of the roots. Therefore, we included in the Sec ond Symposium contributions on both shoot-borne (i.e., adventitious) roots and root-borne (i.e., lateral) roots. Plant roots have remained an exciting and an intriguing field of sciencc. During thc years that followed the first symposium, an exceptional proliferation of interest in root biology has developed, associated with the intensive research activity in this field and the contemporary developments in the understanding of root function and development. New methods have been applied, and old ideas and interprctations werc rccxamined. Alto gether, it became necessary to update our viewpoints and to expand them.

Biology of Adventitious Root Formation

Author: Tim D. Davis,Bruce E. Haissig

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475794924

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 6687

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Charles E. Hess Department of Environmental Horticulture University of California Davis, CA 95616 Research in the biology of adventitious root formation has a special place in science. It provides an excellent forum in which to pursue fundamental research on the regulation of plant growth and development. At the same time the results of the research have been quickly applied by commercial plant propagators, agronomists, foresters and horticulturists (see the chapter by Kovar and Kuchenbuch, by Ritchie, and by Davies and coworkers in this volume). In an era when there is great interest in speeding technology transfer, the experiences gained in research in adventitious root formation may provide useful examples for other areas of science. Interaction between the fundamental and the applied have been and continue to be facilitated by the establishment, in 1951, of the Plant Propagators' Society, which has evolved into the International Plant Propagators' Society, with active programs in six regions around the world. It is a unique organization which brings together researchers in universities, botanical gardens and arboreta, and commercial plant propagators. In this synergistic environment new knowledge is rapidly transferred and new ideas for fundamental research evolve from the presentations and discussions by experienced plant propagators. In the past 50 years, based on research related to the biology of adventitious root formation, advances in plant propagation have been made on two major fronts.

The Olive Tree Genome

Author: Eddo Rugini,Luciana Baldoni,Rosario Muleo,Luca Sebastiani

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319488872

Category: Science

Page: 193

View: 6471

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This book provides an introduction to the genetics, genomics, and breeding of the olive tree, a multi-functional long-lived crop plant that is relevant not only for culinary olive and oil production, but also for shaping the landscape and history of many rural areas for centuries. Today, the recognized health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil provide new impulses for introducing innovation in olive crop management and olive breeding for a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying fruit quality, adaptation to crop environment and response to threatening epidemics due to biological agents such as Xylella fastidiosa. The individual chapters discuss genetic resources; classic and modern breeding methods for providing new olive cultivars; the genotype x environment interactions determining the response to biotic and abiotic stresses; fruit metabolism related to oil production and the synthesis of health beneficial molecules; the mapping of genes and quantitative trait locus; and genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic strategies pertinent to the development of a molecular platform and template amenable to precise and rapid genetic modifications using recently developed genome editing tools.

The Supporting Roots of Trees and Woody Plants: Form, Function and Physiology

Author: A. Stokes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401734690

Category: Science

Page: 431

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This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International Conference devoted to the structural roots of trees and woody plants. 'The Supporting Roots - Structure and Function,' 20-24 July 1998, Bordeaux, France. The meeting was held under the auspices ofIUFRO WPS 2. 01. 13 'Root Physiology and Symbiosis,' and its aim was to bring together scientific researchers, foresters and arboriculturalists, to discuss current problems in structural root research and disseminate knowledge to an audience from a wide disciplinary background. For the first time in an international conference, emphasis was placed on presenting recent reseach in the field of tree anchorage mechanics and root biomechanics. The way in which tree stability can be affected by root system symmetry and architecture was addressed, as well as how movement during wind sway can influence the development and shape of woody roots. The role of different nursery and planting techniques was discussed, in relation to effects on root system form and development. Root response to different environmental stresses, including water, temperature, nutrient and mechanical stress was addressed in detail. The structure and function of woody roots was also considered at different levels, from coarse to fine roots, with several papers discussing the interaction between roots and the rhizosphere. One of the conference highlights was the presentation of new methods in root research, by a series of workshops held at LRBB-INRA, Pierroton, on the northern border of the Gascony forest.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 1272

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As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.

Sustainable Horticulture

Today and Tomorrow

Author: Raymond P. Poincelot

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780136185543

Category: Gardening

Page: 870

View: 4708

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This comprehensive introduction to the emerging discipline of sustainable horticulture provides readers with the foundations of horticultural science that underlie all forms of horticulture from conventional through sustainable to organic. The book leads readers through practices and production, and provides the necessary information to support a more sustainable and environmentally friendly horticulture.The volume explains moving to sustainability, provides an introduction to horticultural science and horticultural practices including plant propagation, crop breeding, biotechnology, energy sustainability and sustaining soil, water and environment, home horticulture basics, integrated pest management and an introduction to horticultural crops.For horticultural professionals, policy makers, consumers and future farmers.

Biology of Life

Biochemistry, Physiology and Philosophy

Author: Laurence A. Cole

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128096861

Category: Science

Page: 196

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Biology of Life: Biochemistry, Physiology and Philosophy provides foundational coverage of the field of biochemistry for a different angle to the traditional biochemistry text by focusing on human biochemistry and incorporating related elements of evolution to help further contextualize this dynamic space. This unique approach includes sections on early human development, what constitutes human life, and what makes it special. Additional coverage on the differences between the biochemistry of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is also included. The center of life in prokaryotes is considered to be photosynthesis and sugar generation, while the center of life in eukaryotes is sugar use and oxidative phosphorylation. This unique reference will inform specialized biochemistry courses and researchers in their understanding of the role biochemistry has in human life. Contextualizes the field of biochemistry and its role in human life Includes dedicated sections on human reproduction and human brain development Provides extensive coverage on biochemical energetics, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, and carbon monoxide-acetate pathways

Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963436

Category: Science

Page: 3674

View: 4928

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Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Root Physiology: from Gene to Function

Author: Hans Lambers,Timothy D. Colmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402040997

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 5945

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In the last decade, enormous progress has been made on the physiology of plant roots, including on a wide range of molecular aspects. Much of that progress has been captured in the chapters of this book. Breakthroughs have been made possible through integration of molecular and whole-plant aspects. The classical boundaries between physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology have vanished. There has been a strong focus on a limited number of model species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. That focus has allowed greater insight into the significance of specific genes for plant development and functioning. However, many species are very different from A. thaliana, in that they are mycorrhizal, develop a symbiosis with N2-fixing microsymbionts, or have other specialised root structures. Also, some have a much greater capacity to resist extreme environments, such as soil acidity, salinity, flooding or heavy-metal toxicities, due to specific adaptations. Research on species other than A. thaliana is therefore pivotal, to develop new knowledge in plant sciences in a comprehensive manner. This fundamental new knowledge can be the basis for important applications in, e.g., agriculture and plant conservation. Although significant progress has been made, much remains to be learnt. It is envisaged that discoveries made in the recent past will likely lead to major breakthroughs in the next decade.

Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration

Author: George T.J. Huang,Irma Thesleff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118498119

Category: Science

Page: 584

View: 1911

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Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration is an introduction to stem cells with an emphasis on their role in craniofacial development. Divided into five sections, chapters build from basic introductory information on the definition and characteristics of stem cells to more indepth explorations of their role in craniofacial development. Section I covers embryonic and adult stem cells with a focus on the craniofacial region, while sections II-IV cover the development and regeneration of craniofacial bone, tooth, temporomandibular joint, salivary glands and muscle. Concluding chapters describe the current, cutting-edge research utilizing stem cells for craniofacial tissue bioengineering to treat lost or damaged tissue. The authoritative resource for dentistry students as well as craniofacial researchers at the graduate and post-graduate level, Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration explores the rapidly expanding field of stem cells and regeneration from the perspective of the dentistry and craniofacial community, and points the way forward in areas of tissue bioengineering and craniofacial stem cell therapies.

Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences

Author: Ajaykumar Vishwakarma,Paul Sharpe,Songtao Shi,Murugan Ramalingam

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123977789

Category: Medical

Page: 932

View: 4363

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Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences bridges the gap left by many tissue engineering and stem cell biology titles to highlight the significance of translational research in this field in the medical sciences. It compiles basic developmental biology with keen focus on cell and matrix biology, stem cells with relevance to tissue engineering biomaterials including nanotechnology and current applications in various disciplines of dental sciences; viz., periodontology, endodontics, oral & craniofacial surgery, dental implantology, orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics, organ engineering and transplant medicine. In addition, it covers research ethics, laws and industrial pitfalls that are of particular importance for the future production of tissue constructs. Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field of biomedical research, which combines life, engineering and materials sciences, to progress the maintenance, repair and replacement of diseased and damaged tissues. This ever-emerging area of research applies an understanding of normal tissue physiology to develop novel biomaterial, acellular and cell-based technologies for clinical and non-clinical applications. As evident in numerous medical disciplines, tissue engineering strategies are now being increasingly developed and evaluated as potential routine therapies for oral and craniofacial tissue repair and regeneration. Diligently covers all the aspects related to stem cell biology and tissue engineering in dental sciences: basic science, research, clinical application and commercialization Provides detailed descriptions of new, modern technologies, fabrication techniques employed in the fields of stem cells, biomaterials and tissue engineering research including details of latest advances in nanotechnology Includes a description of stem cell biology with details focused on oral and craniofacial stem cells and their potential research application throughout medicine Print book is available and black and white, and the ebook is in full color

Root Engineering

Basic and Applied Concepts

Author: Asunción Morte,Ajit Varma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364254276X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 493

View: 8440

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This volume illustrates the complex root system, including the various essential roles of roots as well as their interaction with diverse microorganisms localized in or near the root system. Following initial chapters describing the anatomy and architecture as well as the growth and development of root systems, subsequent chapters focus on the various types of root symbiosis with bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. A third section covers the physiological strategies of roots, such as nitrate assimilation, aquaporins, the role of roots in plant defense responses and in response to droughts and salinity changes. The book’s final chapters discuss the prospects of applied engineering of roots, i.e., inventing new root structures or functions through genetic modification, but also with conventional breeding and manipulation of root symbionts. The budding field of root engineering is expected to promote a second green revolution.

Bioengineering and Molecular Biology of Plant Pathways

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080556963

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 752

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The increased knowledge about the structure of genomes in a number of species, about the complexity of transcriptomes, and the rapid growth in knowledge about mutant phenotypes have set off the large scale use of transgenes to answer basic biological questions, and to generate new crops and novel products. Bioengineering and Molecular Biology of Plant Pathways includes twelve chapters, which to variable degrees describe the use of transgenic plants to explore possibilities and approaches for the modification of plant metabolism, adaptation or development. The interests of the authors range from tool development, to basic biochemical know-how about the engineering of enzymes, to exploring avenues for the modification of complex multigenic pathways, and include several examples for the engineering of specific pathways in different organs and developmental stages. Prologue by Paul K. Stumpf and Eric E. Conn Incorporates new concepts and insights in plant biochemistry and biology Provides a conceptual framework regarding the challenges faced in engineering pathways Discusses potential in engineering of metabolic end-products that are of vast economical importance, including genetic engineering of cellulose, seed storage proteins, and edible and industrial oils

Aerospace Medicine and Biology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aviation medicine

Page: N.A

View: 9462

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A selection of annotated references to unclassified reports and journal articles that were introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system and announced in Scientific and technical aerospace reports (STAR) and International aerospace abstracts (IAA).

Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology

Author: Robert N. Trigiano,Dennis J. Gray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439896143

Category: Medical

Page: 608

View: 2450

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Under the vast umbrella of Plant Sciences resides a plethora of highly specialized fields. Botanists, agronomists, horticulturists, geneticists, and physiologists each employ a different approach to the study of plants and each for a different end goal. Yet all will find themselves in the laboratory engaging in what can broadly be termed biotechnology. Addressing a wide variety of related topics, Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology gives the practical and technical knowledge needed to train the next generation of plant scientists regardless of their ultimate specialization. With the detailed perspectives and hands-on training signature to the authors’ previous bestselling books, Plant Development and Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, this book discusses relevant concepts supported by demonstrative laboratory experiments. It provides critical thinking questions, concept boxes highlighting important ideas, and procedure boxes giving precise instruction for experiments, including step-by-step procedures, such as the proper microscope use with digital photography, along with anticipated results, and a list of materials needed to perform them. Integrating traditional plant sciences with recent advances in plant tissue culture, development, and biotechnology, chapters address germplasm preservation, plant growth regulators, embryo rescue, micropropagation of roses, haploid cultures, and transformation of meristems. Going beyond the scope of a simple laboratory manual, this book also considers special topics such as copyrights, patents, legalities, trade secrets, and the business of biotechnology. Focusing on plant culture development and its applications in biotechnology across a myriad of plant science specialties, this text uses a broad range of species and practical laboratory exercises to make it useful for anyone engaged in the plant sciences.

Root Development

Methods and Protocols

Author: Daniela Ristova,Elke Barbez

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781493977468

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 9604

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This detailed volume provides diverse elegant methods, complemented with existing protocols, which are optimized for the current needs in plant root biology as well as for use in plant species other than Arabidopsis thaliana. The collection covers methods ranging from genetic screens, phenotypic analysis, and cell biology methods to systems biology tools and genome-wide approaches. The collection contains a range of complexity from fundamental methods for quantification of different root developmental processes to complex methods that require sophisticated equipment. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Root Development: Methods and Protocols serves as a valuable tool for plant biologists specialized in root development, from beginners to experienced researchers in the field.

Plant Growth

Interactions with Nutrition and Environment

Author: J. R. Porter,D. W. Lawlor

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521361330

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 3945

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Concepts of nutrition in relation to cellular process and environment; Nutrient compartmentation in cells and its relevance to the nutrition of the whole plant; Nutrients and photosynthesis: iron and phosphorus as case studies; The comparative ecophysiology of plant nitrogen metabolism; Concepts of nutritional and environmental interactions determining plant productivity; Plant-soil relationship: acquisition of mineral nutrients by roots from soils; Ecophysiological aspects of nutrition; Strategies for optimising growth in response to nutrient supply; Pollution, nutrition and plant function; The role of nitrogen in yeld formation and achievement of quality standards in cereals; nutrition, environment and plant ecology: an overview.