Being and Nothingness

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453228551

Category: Philosophy

Page: 700

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The celebrated French philosopher’s most essential text, Being and Nothingness takes a revolutionary look at ontology, ethics, and personal freedom In Being and Nothingness, Jean-Paul Sartre closely examines ontology (the study of the nature of being) and discusses empirical issues that he finds scientific fields struggle to explain. Above all, he delves into the idea of “freedom over choice,” which states that humans have complete and total responsibility over their actions. While taking care to address, build on, and refute the works of Descartes, Husserl, Hegel, and other earlier philosophers, Sartre covers “Being-for-itself,” “Being-for-others,” and ethics, arguing that the body and the mind are capable of sharing a true single consciousness. As one of the seminal works of existentialist theory, and thus a pinnacle of twentieth-century philosophy, Being and Nothingness is a fundamental text for anyone interested in the field. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) was a significant voice in the creation of existential thought. His explorations of the ways human existence is unique among all life-forms in its capacity to choose continue to influence fields such as Marxist philosophy, sociology, and literary studies. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, but refused the honor.

Being and Nothingness

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre,Hazel Estella Barnes

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0671867806

Category: Philosophy

Page: 811

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Sartre explains the theory of existential psychoanalysis in this treatise on human reality

Being and Nothingness

An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology

Author: Paul-Jean Sartre

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136799125

Category: Philosophy

Page: 688

View: 1885

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Being and Nothingness is without doubt one of the most significant books of the twentieth century. The central work by one of the world's most influential thinkers, it altered the course of western philosophy. Its revolutionary approach challenged all previous assumptions about the individual's relationship with the world. Known as 'the Bible of existentialism', its impact on culture and literature was immediate and was felt worldwide, from the absurd drama of Samuel Beckett to the soul-searching cries of the Beat poets. Being and Nothingness is one of those rare books whose influence has affected the mind-set of subsequent generations. Sixty years after its first publication, its message remains as potent as ever - challenging the reader to confront the fundamental dilemmas of human freedom, responsibility and action.

"What is Literature?" and Other Essays

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674950849

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 361

View: 8979

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"What is Literature?" challenges anyone who writes as if literature could be extricated from history or society. But Sartre does more than indict. He offers a definitive statement about the phenomenology of reading, and he goes on to provide a dashing example of how to write a history of literature that takes ideology and institutions into account.

Being and Time

A Translation of Sein und Zeit

Author: Martin Heidegger

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791426777

Category: Philosophy

Page: 487

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A new, definitive translation of Heidegger's most important work.

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317914384

Category: Philosophy

Page: 96

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Philosopher, novelist, dramatist and existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre is one of the greatest writers of all time. He was fascinated by the role played by the emotions in human life and placed them at the heart of his philosophy. This brilliant short work - which contains some of the principal ideas later to appear in his masterpiece Being and Nothingness - is Sartre at his best: insightful, engaging and controversial. Far from constraining one's freedom, as we often think, Sartre argues that emotions are fundamental to it and that an emotion is nothing less than 'a transformation of the world'. With a new foreword by Sebastian Gardner.

Truth and Existence

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226735238

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 6282

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Truth and Existence, written in response to Martin Heidegger's Essence of Truth, is a product of the years when Sartre was reaching full stature as a philosopher, novelist, playwright, essayist, and political activist. This concise and engaging text not only presents Sartre's ontology of truth but also addresses the key moral questions of freedom, action, and bad faith. Truth and Existence is introduced by an extended biographical, historical, and analytical essay by Ronald Aronson. "Truth and Existence is another important element in the recently published links between Sartre's existentialist ontology and his later ethical, political, and literary concerns. . . . The excellent introduction by Aronson will help readers not experienced in reading Sartre."—Choice "Accompanied by an excellent introduction, this dense, lucidly translated treatise reveals Sartre as a characteristically 20th-century figure."—Publishers Weekly Jean-Paul Sartre (1906-1980) was offered, but declined, the Nobel Prize for literature in 1964. His many works of fiction, drama, and philosophy include the monumental study of Flaubert, The Family Idiot, and The Freud Scenario, both published in translation by the University of Chicago Press.

Existentialism From Dostoevsky To Sartre

Author: Walter Kaufmann

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 1786258676

Category: Psychology

Page: 284

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What is Existentialism? It is perhaps the most misunderstood of modern philosophic positions—misunderstood by reason of its broad popularity and general unfamiliarity with its origins, representatives, and principles. Existential thinking does not originate with Jean Paul Sartre. It has prior religious, literary, and philosophic origins. In its narrowest formulation it is a metaphysical doctrine, arguing as it does that any definition of man’s essence must follow, not precede, an estimation of his existence. In Heidegger, it affords a view of Being in its totality; in Kierkegaard an approach to that inwardness indispensable to authentic religious experience; for Dostoevsky, Kafka, and Rilke the existential situation bears the stamp of modern man’s alienation, uprootedness, and absurdity; to Sartre it has vast ethical and political implications. Walter Kaufmann, author of Nietzsche, is eminently qualified to present and interpret the insights of existentialism as they occur and are deepened by the major thinkers who express them. In every case complete selections or entire works have been employed: The Wall, Existentialism, and the complete chapter on “Self-Deception” from L’être et le Néant by Sartre; two lectures from Jaspers’ book Reason and Existenz; original translations of On My Philosophy by Jaspers and The Way Back into the Ground of Metaphysics by Heidegger. There is, as well, material from Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Camus.

Using Sartre

An Analytical Introduction to Early Sartrean Themes

Author: Gregory McCulloch

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415109531

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

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Using Sartre is an introduction to the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre, but it is not an ordinary introduction. It both promotes Sartrean views and adopts a consistently analytical approach to him. Concentrating on the early philosophy, up to and including Sartre's masterwork Being and Nothingness, Gregory McCulloch clearly shows how much analytic philosophy misses when it neglects Sartre and the continental tradition in philosophy. In the classic spirit of analytic philosophy, this is a clear, simple and short exposition of the early work of Sartre. Written specifically for beginners and non-specialists, this book aims to encourage interest in Sartre and the existentialists, while making a significant contribution to the development of analytical philosophy of mind as well. McCulloch has also published The Game of the Name (OUP, 1989); and Mind and World.

We Have Only this Life to Live

Selected Essays of Jean-Paul Sartre, 1939-1975

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: New York Review of Books

ISBN: 1590174933

Category: Philosophy

Page: 555

View: 7575

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"Philosopher, novelist, playwright, biographer, journalist, and activist, Jean-Paul Sartre was also and perhaps above all a great essayist. The essay was uniquely suited to Sartre because of its intrinsically provisional and open-ended character. It is the perfect form in which to dramatize the existential character of our deepest intellectual, artistic, and political commitments. This new selection of Sartre's essays, the first in English to draw on the entire ten volumes of his collected essays as well as previously unpublished work, includes extraordinarily searching appreciations of such writers and artists as Faulkner, Bataille, and Giacometti; Sartre's great address to the French people at the end of the occupation, The Republic of Silence ; sketches of the United States from his visit in the 1940s; reflections on politics that are both incisive and incendiary; portraits of Camus and Merleau-Ponty; and a candid reckoning with his own career from one of the interviews that ill-health made his prime mode of communication late in life. Together they add up to an unequaled portrait of a revolutionary and sometimes reckless thinker and writer and his contentious, difficult but

Phenomenology of Perception

Author: Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135718679

Category: Philosophy

Page: 696

View: 8788

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First published in 1945, Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s monumental Phénoménologie de la perception signalled the arrival of a major new philosophical and intellectual voice in post-war Europe. Breaking with the prevailing picture of existentialism and phenomenology at the time, it has become one of the landmark works of twentieth-century thought. This new translation, the first for over fifty years, makes this classic work of philosophy available to a new generation of readers. Phenomenology of Perception stands in the great phenomenological tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre. Yet Merleau-Ponty’s contribution is decisive, as he brings this tradition and other philosophical predecessors, particularly Descartes and Kant, to confront a neglected dimension of our experience: the lived body and the phenomenal world. Charting a bold course between the reductionism of science on the one hand and "intellectualism" on the other, Merleau-Ponty argues that we should regard the body not as a mere biological or physical unit, but as the body which structures one’s situation and experience within the world. Merleau-Ponty enriches his classic work with engaging studies of famous cases in the history of psychology and neurology as well as phenomena that continue to draw our attention, such as phantom limb syndrome, synaesthesia, and hallucination. This new translation includes many helpful features such as the reintroduction of Merleau-Ponty’s discursive Table of Contents as subtitles into the body of the text, a comprehensive Translator’s Introduction to its main themes, essential notes explaining key terms of translation, an extensive Index, and an important updating of Merleau-Ponty’s references to now available English translations. Also included is a new foreword by Taylor Carman and an introduction to Merleau-Ponty by Claude Lefort. Translated by Donald A. Landes.

A Commentary on Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness

Author: Joseph S. Catalano

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226096995

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 6009

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"[A Commentary on Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness] represents, I believe, a very important beginning of a deservingly serious effort to make the whole of Being and Nothingness more readily understandable and readable. . . . In his systematic interpretations of Sartre's book, [Catalano] demonstrates a determination to confront many of the most demanding issues and concepts of Being and Nothingness. He does not shrink—as do so many interpreters of Sartre—from such issues as the varied meanings of 'being,' the meaning of 'internal negation' and 'absolute event,' the idiosyncratic senses of transcendence, the meaning of the 'upsurge' in its different contexts, what it means to say that we 'exist our body,' the connotation of such concepts as quality, quantity, potentiality, and instrumentality (in respect to Sartre's world of 'things'), or the origin of negation. . . . Catalano offers what is doubtless one of the most probing, original, and illuminating interpretations of Sartre's crucial concept of nothingness to appear in the Sartrean literature."—Ronald E. Santoni, International Philosophical Quarterly

The Culture Industry

Selected Essays on Mass Culture

Author: Theodor W Adorno

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134522665

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

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The creation of the Frankfurt School of critical theory in the 1920s saw the birth of some of the most exciting and challenging writings of the twentieth century. It is out of this background that the great critic Theodor Adorno emerged. His finest essays are collected here, offering the reader unparalleled insights into Adorno's thoughts on culture. He argued that the culture industry commodified and standardized all art. In turn this suffocated individuality and destroyed critical thinking. At the time, Adorno was accused of everything from overreaction to deranged hysteria by his many detractors. In today's world, where even the least cynical of consumers is aware of the influence of the media, Adorno's work takes on a more immediate significance. The Culture Industry is an unrivalled indictment of the banality of mass culture.

Heidegger Explained

From Phenomenon to Thing

Author: Graham Harman

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 0812697480

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

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Heidegger Explained is a clear and thorough summary of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger (1889–1976). It gives a fascinating explanation of all stages of Heidegger’s life and career, and shows his entire philosophy to emerge from one simple but profound insight. Many philosophers believe that Heidegger was the greatest philosopher of the twentieth century. His influence has long been felt not just in philosophy, but also in such fields as art, architecture, and literary studies. Yet the great difficulty of Heidegger’s terminology has often scared away interested readers lacking an academic background in philosophy. Author Graham Harman shows that Heidegger is actually one of the simplest and clearest of thinkers. All the diverse topics of his writings, and all the lengthy analyses he gives of past philosophers, boil down to a single powerful idea: being is not presence. In any human relation with the world, our thinking and even our acting do not fully exhaust the world. Something more always withdraws from our grasp. Neither being itself nor individual beings are ever fully “present-at-hand,” in Heidegger’s terminology. This single insight allows Heidegger to revolutionize the phenomenology of his teacher Edmund Husserl. The method of Husserl was to focus entirely on how things present themselves to us as phenomena in consciousness. Heidegger understood that the things are always partly hidden from consciousness, living a secret life of their own. Human beings are not lucid scientific observers staring at the world and describing it, but instead are thrown into a world where light is always mixed with shadow. For Heidegger, the entire history of philosophy has reduced being to some sort of presence, whether by defining it as atoms, consciousness, perfect forms, the will to power, or even God. In this way, past philosophers have all chosen one specific kind of privileged being to represent being itself. Yet this is impossible, since being always partly withdraws from any attempt to define it. For this reason, philosophy needs to make a new beginning, one that would be just as great as the first beginning in ancient Greece. The book ends by shedding new light on Heidegger’s concept of the fourfold, which is so notoriously difficult that most commentators avoid it altogether.

Existential Psychoanalysis

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453228586

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

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Sartre’s Existential Psychoanalysis contemplates existentialism as it pertains to modern psychology In Existential Psychoanalysis, Sartre looks at existentialism through the lens of modern psychology, with a particular interest in Freud’s theory of determinism. By framing the “human situation” around an existentialist psychoanalysis, the French philosopher contradicts Freud by claiming that humans are in full control of their choices, behaviors, and decisions—blatantly disagreeing with Freud’s idea of the unconscious libido. By marrying philosophy with psychology and arguing against another famous thinker (Freud), Sartre asks the reader to rethink the typical definition of existentialist theory.

Sartre: A Guide for the Perplexed

Author: Gary Cox

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441169881

Category: Philosophy

Page: 194

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Jean-Paul Sartre in one of the most widely read and important of twentieth-century philosophers, an iconic figure, whose ideas and writings continue to resonate. A confident understanding of Sartre is essential for students of Continental philosophy. Sartre: A Guide for the Perplexed is an illuminating and comprehensive introduction to the work of this major twentieth-century thinker. It identifies the four key themes that run through Sartre's writings - consciousness, freedom, bad faith and authenticity. It explores each theme in detail, building up a clear and thorough overview of Sartre's philosophy in its entirety. Anyone required to read Sartre will find this thematic account of his work an invaluable companion to study.

Basic Writings from Being and Time (1927) to The Task of Thinking (1964)

Author: Martin Heidegger

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415101615

Category: Philosophy

Page: 452

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This revised and expanded edition of Martin Heidegger's Basic Writings includes ten key essays and the introduction to Being and Time. Basic Writings is a concise introduction to the thought of this controversial and important 20th-century philosopher. David Farrell Krell has expanded and improved this collection by adding The Way to Language and including the complete version of The Origin of the Work of Art. The complete selection is: Being and Time: Introduction; What is Metaphysics? On the Essence of Truth; The Origin of the Work of Art; Letter on Humanism; Modern Science, Metaphysics, and Mathematics; The Question Concerning Technology - Building Dwelling; Thinking - What Calls for Thinking?; The Way to Language; The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thinking.

Oneself as Another

Author: Paul Ricoeur

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226713298

Category: Philosophy

Page: 363

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Paul Ricoeur has been hailed as one of the most important thinkers of the century. Oneself as Another, the clearest account of his "philosophical ethics," substantiates this position and lays the groundwork for a metaphysics of morals. Focusing on the concept of personal identity, Ricoeur develops a hermeneutics of the self that charts its epistemological path and ontological status.

Existentialism is a Humanism

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300115468

Category: Philosophy

Page: 108

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This book presents a new English translation of two seminal works by Jean-Paul Sartre, the most dominant European intellectual of the post-World War II decades. The volume includes Sartre's 1945 lecture “Existentialism Is a Humanism” and his analysis of Camus's The Stranger, along with a discussion of these works by acclaimed Sartre biographer Annie Cohen-Solal. This edition is a translation of the 1996 French edition, which includes Arlette Elkaïm-Sartre's introduction and a Q&A with Sartre about his lecture. In her foreword, intended for an American audience, acclaimed Sartre biographer Annie Cohen-Solal offers an assessment of both works. It was to correct common misconceptions about his thought that Sartre accepted an invitation to speak on October 29, 1945, at the Club Maintenant in Paris. The unstated objective of his lecture (“Existentialism Is a Humanism”) was to expound his philosophy as a form of “existentialism,” a term much bandied about at the time. Sartre asserted that existentialism was essentially a doctrine for philosophers, though, ironically, he was about to make it accessible to a general audience. The published text of his lecture quickly became one of the bibles of existentialism and made Sartre an international celebrity. The idea of freedom occupies the center of Sartre's doctrine. Man, born into an empty, godless universe, is nothing to begin with. He creates his essence—his self, his being—through the choices he freely makes (“existence precedes essence”). Were it not for the contingency of his death, he would never end. Choosing to be this or that is to affirm the value of what we choose. In choosing, therefore, we commit not only ourselves but all of mankind.

The Cambridge Companion to Sartre

Author: Christina Howells

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139824945

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

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This is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date surveys of the philosophy of Sartre, by some of the foremost interpreters in the United States and Europe. The essays are both expository and original, and cover Sartre's writings on ontology, phenomenology, psychology, ethics, and aesthetics, as well as his work on history, commitment, and progress; a final section considers Sartre's relationship to structuralism and deconstruction. Providing a balanced view of Sartre's philosophy and situating it in relation to contemporary trends in Continental philosophy, the volume shows that many of the topics associated with Lacan, Foucault, Levi-Strauss, and Derrida are to be found in the work of Sartre, in some cases as early as 1936. A special feature of the volume is the treatment of the recently published and hitherto little studied posthumous works.