At America's Gates

Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943

Author: Erika Lee

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807863138

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 9392

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With the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Chinese laborers became the first group in American history to be excluded from the United States on the basis of their race and class. This landmark law changed the course of U.S. immigration history, but we know little about its consequences for the Chinese in America or for the United States as a nation of immigrants. At America's Gates is the first book devoted entirely to both Chinese immigrants and the American immigration officials who sought to keep them out. Erika Lee explores how Chinese exclusion laws not only transformed Chinese American lives, immigration patterns, identities, and families but also recast the United States into a "gatekeeping nation." Immigrant identification, border enforcement, surveillance, and deportation policies were extended far beyond any controls that had existed in the United States before. Drawing on a rich trove of historical sources--including recently released immigration records, oral histories, interviews, and letters--Lee brings alive the forgotten journeys, secrets, hardships, and triumphs of Chinese immigrants. Her timely book exposes the legacy of Chinese exclusion in current American immigration control and race relations.

At America's Gates

Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943

Author: Erika Lee

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807827754

Category: Law

Page: 331

View: 7290

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Lee explores Chinese immigration during the exclusion era, a period from 1882 to 1943 when the U.S. ended its historic welcome to immigrants.

At America's Gates

Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943

Author: Erika Lee

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807854488

Category: History

Page: 331

View: 8641

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At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

Author: John Robert Soennichsen

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313379467

Category: History

Page: 179

View: 2853

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Chronicles the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which restricted Chinese immigration to the United States, including the conditions in China that led to the migration, the prejudices and acts of violence against the group, and the repeal of 1943.

The Chinese Exclusion Act: What It Can Teach Us about America

Author: B. Railton

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137339098

Category: History

Page: 74

View: 5537

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This book explores two critical strands in American Studies: policy conversations on legal and illegal immigration and social and educational conversations on diversity and multiculturalism. As author Benjamin Railton shows, a fresh look at the Chinese Exclusion Act overturns much of the received wisdom on immigration and American identity.

Paper Families

Identity, Immigration Administration, and Chinese Exclusion

Author: Estelle T. Lau

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822388316

Category: History

Page: 226

View: 8085

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The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 made the Chinese the first immigrant group officially excluded from the United States. In Paper Families, Estelle T. Lau demonstrates how exclusion affected Chinese American communities and initiated the development of restrictive U.S. immigration policies and practices. Through the enforcement of the Exclusion Act and subsequent legislation, the U.S. immigration service developed new forms of record keeping and identification practices. Meanwhile, Chinese Americans took advantage of the system’s loophole: children of U.S. citizens were granted automatic eligibility for immigration. The result was an elaborate system of “paper families,” in which U.S. citizens of Chinese descent claimed fictive, or “paper,” children who could then use their kinship status as a basis for entry into the United States. This subterfuge necessitated the creation of “crib sheets” outlining genealogies and providing village maps and other information that could be used during immigration processing. Drawing on these documents as well as immigration case files, legislative materials, and transcripts of interviews and court proceedings, Lau reveals immigration as an interactive process. Chinese immigrants and their U.S. families were subject to regulation and surveillance, but they also manipulated and thwarted those regulations, forcing the U.S. government to adapt its practices and policies. Lau points out that the Exclusion Acts and the pseudo-familial structures that emerged in response have had lasting effects on Chinese American identity. She concludes with a look at exclusion’s legacy, including the Confession Program of the 1960s that coerced people into divulging the names of paper family members and efforts made by Chinese American communities to recover their lost family histories.

Angel Island

Immigrant Gateway to America

Author: Erika Lee,Judy Yung

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199752799

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 4914

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From 1910 to 1940, over half a million people sailed through the Golden Gate, hoping to start a new life in America. But they did not all disembark in San Francisco; instead, most were ferried across the bay to the Angel Island Immigration Station. For many, this was the real gateway to the United States. For others, it was a prison and their final destination, before being sent home. In this landmark book, historians Erika Lee and Judy Yung (both descendants of immigrants detained on the island) provide the first comprehensive history of the Angel Island Immigration Station. Drawing on extensive new research, including immigration records, oral histories, and inscriptions on the barrack walls, the authors produce a sweeping yet intensely personal history of Chinese "paper sons," Japanese picture brides, Korean students, South Asian political activists, Russian and Jewish refugees, Mexican families, Filipino repatriates, and many others from around the world. Their experiences on Angel Island reveal how America's discriminatory immigration policies changed the lives of immigrants and transformed the nation. A place of heartrending history and breathtaking beauty, the Angel Island Immigration Station is a National Historic Landmark, and like Ellis Island, it is recognized as one of the most important sites where America's immigration history was made. This fascinating history is ultimately about America itself and its complicated relationship to immigration, a story that continues today.

Forbidden Citizens

Chinese Exclusion and the U.S. Congress : a Legislative History

Author: Martin Gold

Publisher: The Capitol Net Inc

ISBN: 1587332353

Category: History

Page: 616

View: 2309

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"Described as 'one of the most vulgar forms of barbarism, ' by Rep. John Kasson (R-IA) in 1882, a series of laws passed by the United States Congress between 1879 and 1943 resulted in prohibiting the Chinese as a people from becoming U.S. citizens. Forbidden citizens recounts this long and shameful legislative history"--Page 4 of cover.

Driven Out

The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans

Author: Jean Pfaelzer

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520256941

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 7694

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This sweeping and groundbreaking work presents the shocking and violent history of ethnic cleansing against Chinese Americans from the Gold Rush era to the turn of the century.

Entry Denied

Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882-1943

Author: Sucheng Chan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781566392013

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 8317

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In 1882, Congress passed a Chinese exclusion law that barred the entry of Chinese laborers for ten years. The Chinese thus became the first people to be restricted from immigrating into the United States on the basis of race. Exclusion was renewed in 1892 and 1902 and finally made permanent in 1904. Only in 1943 did Congress rescind all the Chinese exclusion laws as a gesture of goodwill towards China, an ally of the United States during World War II. Entry Denied is a collection of essays on how the Chinese exclusion laws were implemented and how the Chinese as individuals and as a community in the U.S. mobilized to mitigate the restrictions imposed upon them. It is the first book in English to rely on Chinese language sources to explore the exclusion era in Chinese American history. Author note: Sucheng Chan, Professor and Chair of Asian American Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, is general editor of Temple's Asian American History and Culture Series.

Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home

Transnationalism and Migration Between the United States and South China, 1882-1943

Author: Madeline Y. Hsu

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804746878

Category: History

Page: 271

View: 1734

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This book is a highly original study of transnationalism among immigrants from the county of Taishan, from which, until 1965, a high percentage of the Chinese in the United States originated. The author vividly depicts the continuing ties between Taishanese remaining in China and their kinsmen seeking their fortune in "Gold Mountain."

Laws Harsh As Tigers

Chinese Immigrants and the Shaping of Modern Immigration Law

Author: Lucy E. Salyer

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807864319

Category: Law

Page: 360

View: 8912

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Focusing primarily on the exclusion of the Chinese, Lucy Salyer analyzes the popular and legal debates surrounding immigration law and its enforcement during the height of nativist sentiment in the early twentieth century. She argues that the struggles between Chinese immigrants, U.S. government officials, and the lower federal courts that took place around the turn of the century established fundamental principles that continue to dominate immigration law today and make it unique among branches of American law. By establishing the centrality of the Chinese to immigration policy, Salyer also integrates the history of Asian immigrants on the West Coast with that of European immigrants in the East. Salyer demonstrates that Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans mounted sophisticated and often-successful legal challenges to the enforcement of exclusionary immigration policies. Ironically, their persistent litigation contributed to the development of legal doctrines that gave the Bureau of Immigration increasing power to counteract resistance. Indeed, by 1924, immigration law had begun to diverge from constitutional norms, and the Bureau of Immigration had emerged as an exceptionally powerful organization, free from many of the constraints imposed upon other government agencies.

Claiming America

Author: K. Wong,Sucheng Chan

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781566395762

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 5887

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A fascinating collection of essays that recovers the lives and experiences of individuals who staked their claim to Chinese American identity. The first section of the book focuses on the in-coming immigrants. The second section looks at their children, who deeply felt the contradictions between Chinese and American culture, but attempted to find a balance between the two.

Alien Nation

Chinese Migration in the Americas from the Coolie Era through World War II

Author: Elliott Young

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469613409

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 5104

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In this sweeping work, Elliott Young traces the pivotal century of Chinese migration to the Americas, beginning with the 1840s at the start of the "coolie" trade and ending during World War II. The Chinese came as laborers, streaming across borders legally and illegally and working jobs few others wanted, from constructing railroads in California to harvesting sugar cane in Cuba. Though nations were built in part from their labor, Young argues that they were the first group of migrants to bear the stigma of being "alien." Being neither black nor white and existing outside of the nineteenth century Western norms of sexuality and gender, the Chinese were viewed as permanent outsiders, culturally and legally. It was their presence that hastened the creation of immigration bureaucracies charged with capture, imprisonment, and deportation. This book is the first transnational history of Chinese migration to the Americas. By focusing on the fluidity and complexity of border crossings throughout the Western Hemisphere, Young shows us how Chinese migrants constructed alternative communities and identities through these transnational pathways.

The Making of Asian America

A History

Author: Erika Lee

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476739412

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 7855

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"The definitive history of Asian Americans by one of the nation's preeminent scholars on the subject. In the past fifty years, Asian Americans have helped change the face of America and are now the fastest growing group in the United States. But as award-winning historian Erika Lee reminds us, Asian Americans also have deep roots in the country. The Making of Asian America tells the little-known history of Asian Americans and their role in American life, from the arrival of the first Asians in the Americas to the present-day. An epic history of global journeys and new beginnings, this book shows how generations of Asian immigrants and their American-born descendants have made and remade Asian American life in the United States: sailors who came on the first trans-Pacific ships in the 1500s; indentured "coolies" who worked alongside African slaves in the Caribbean; and Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, and South Asian immigrants who were recruited to work in the United States only to face massive racial discrimination, Asian exclusion laws, and for Japanese Americans, incarceration during World War II. Over the past fifty years, a new Asian America has emerged out of community activism and the arrival of new immigrants and refugees. No longer a "despised minority," Asian Americans are now held up as America's "model minorities" in ways that reveal the complicated role that race still plays in the United States. Published to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the United States' Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 that has remade our "nation of immigrants," this is a new and definitive history of Asian Americans. But more than that, it is a new way of understanding America itself, its complicated histories of race and immigration, and its place in the world today"--

Closing the Gate

Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act

Author: Andrew Gyory

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 080786675X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3702

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The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which barred practically all Chinese from American shores for ten years, was the first federal law that banned a group of immigrants solely on the basis of race or nationality. By changing America's traditional policy of open immigration, this landmark legislation set a precedent for future restrictions against Asian immigrants in the early 1900s and against Europeans in the 1920s. Tracing the origins of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Andrew Gyory presents a bold new interpretation of American politics during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age. Rather than directly confront such divisive problems as class conflict, economic depression, and rising unemployment, he contends, politicians sought a safe, nonideological solution to the nation's industrial crisis--and latched onto Chinese exclusion. Ignoring workers' demands for an end simply to imported contract labor, they claimed instead that working people would be better off if there were no Chinese immigrants. By playing the race card, Gyory argues, national politicians--not California, not organized labor, and not a general racist atmosphere--provided the motive force behind the era's most racist legislation.

Immigrant Rights in the Shadows of Citizenship

Author: Rachel Ida Buff

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814789749

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 2258

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Punctuated by marches across the United States in the spring of 2006, immigrant rights has reemerged as a significant and highly visible political issue. Immigrant Rights in the Shadows of U.S. Citizenship brings prominent activists and scholars together to examine the emergence and significance of the contemporary immigrant rights movement. Contributors place the contemporary immigrant rights movement in historical and comparative contexts by looking at the ways immigrants and their allies have staked claims to rights in the past, and by examining movements based in different communities around the United States. Scholars explain the evolution of immigration policy, and analyze current conflicts around issues of immigrant rights; activists engaged in the current movement document the ways in which coalitions have been built among immigrants from different nations, and between immigrant and native born peoples. The essays examine the ways in which questions of immigrant rights engage broader issues of identity, including gender, race, and sexuality.

This Bittersweet Soil

The Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860-1910

Author: Sucheng Chan

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520067370

Category: History

Page: 503

View: 2314

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00 Based on prodigious research, this book chronicles the activities of the thousands of Chinese agricultural pioneers and entrepreneurs who helped make California the nation's premier agricultural state. Based on prodigious research, this book chronicles the activities of the thousands of Chinese agricultural pioneers and entrepreneurs who helped make California the nation's premier agricultural state.

Chinese St. Louis

From Enclave to Cultural Community

Author: N.A

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781439905814

Category: Chinese Americans

Page: 286

View: 2031

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Guarding the Golden Door

American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882

Author: Roger Daniels

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 1466806850

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 2114

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As renowned historian Roger Daniels shows in this brilliant new work, America's inconsistent, often illogical, and always cumbersome immigration policy has profoundly affected our recent past. The federal government's efforts to pick and choose among the multitude of immigrants seeking to enter the United States began with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Conceived in ignorance and falsely presented to the public, it had undreamt of consequences, and this pattern has been rarely deviated from since. Immigration policy in Daniels' skilled hands shows Americans at their best and worst, from the nativist violence that forced Theodore Roosevelt's 1907 "gentlemen's agreement" with Japan to the generous refugee policies adopted after World War Two and throughout the Cold War. And in a conclusion drawn from today's headlines, Daniels makes clear how far ignorance, partisan politics, and unintended consequences have overtaken immigration policy during the current administration's War on Terror. Irreverent, deeply informed, and authoritative, Guarding the Golden Door presents an unforgettable interpretation of modern American history.