Aspects of Metaphor in Physics

Examples and Case Studies

Author: Hanna Pulaczewska

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110915936

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 309

View: 3211

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For decades there has been awareness of the fact that the natural sciences and the language they use are not metaphor-free domains. This study draws together statements on this phenomenon made in a discourse context hitherto dominated by theoreticians and philosophers of science and points up new perspectives of an interdisciplinary nature discussed here primarily from the viewpoint of cognitive semantics. How do metaphors enter into a discourse with physics? To what extent are the methods used and the issues addressed in physics influenced by metaphors? How do the ubiquitous metaphors of everyday language help us to impose a structure on physics knowledge and express abstract ideas in concrete images? These and other related issues are discussed with reference to copious examples.

Aspects of Consciousness

Essays on Physics, Death and the Mind

Author: Ingrid Fredriksson

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786488239

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 7525

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Throughout the ages, the mysteries of what happens when we die and the nature of the human mind have fascinated us. In this collection of essays, leading scientists and authors contemplate consciousness, quantum mechanics, string theory, dimensions, space and time, nonlocal space, the hologram, and the effect of death on consciousness. Although many of these topics have traditionally been considered matters for philosophical and religious debate, advances in modern science and in particular the science of resuscitation have now enabled an objective, scientific approach—which bears widespread implications not only for science but for all of humanity.

The Face of Mammon

The Matter of Money in English Renaissance Literature

Author: David Landreth

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190208325

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 368

View: 3868

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Money talked in sixteenth-century England, as money still does today. But what the sixteenth century's gold and silver had to say for itself is strikingly different from the modern discourse of money. As David Landreth demonstrates in The Face of Mammon, the material and historical differences between the coins of the English Renaissance and today's paper and electronic money propel a distinctive and complex assessment of the relation between material substance and human value. Although the sixteenth century was marked by the traumatic emergence of conditions that would prove to be characteristic of the modern economy, the discipline of economics had not been invented to assess those conditions. The Face of Mammon considers how literary texts investigated these unexplained material transformations through attention to the materiality of gold and silver money. In new readings of Spenser's Faerie Queene, Marlowe's Jew of Malta, three plays by Shakespeare-King John, The Merchant of Venice, and Measure for Measure-the poetry of John Donne, and the prose of Thomas Nashe, Landreth argues that these texts situate the act of exchange at the center of a system of "common wealth" that sought to integrate political, ethical, and religious values with material ones, and probe the ways in which market value corrodes that system even as it depends upon it. Joining the methods of material-culture studies to those of economic criticism, The Face of Mammon offers a new account of the historical transformations of the concept of value to scholars of early modern literature, culture, and art, as well as to those interested in economic history.

Metaphors of Conciousness

Author: Ronald S. Valle,Rolf von Eckartsberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461338026

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

View: 4939

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As we move into the 1980s, there is an increasing awareness that our civilization is going through a profound cultural transformation. At the heart of this transformation lies what is often called a "paradigm shift"-a dramatic change in the thoughts, perceptions, and values which form a particular vision of reality. The paradigm that is now shifting comprises a large number of ideas and values that have dominated our society for several hundred years; values that have been associated with various streams of Western culture, among them the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century, The Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. They include the belief in the scientific method as the only valid approach to knowledge, the split between mind and matter, the view of nature as a mechanical system, the view of life in society as a competitive struggle for survival, and the belief in unlimited material progress to be achieved through economic and technological growth. All these ideas and values are now found to be severely limited and in need of radical revision.

Mathematics as Metaphor

Selected Essays of Yuri I. Manin

Author: I͡U. I. Manin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821843311

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 5658

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The book includes fifteen essays and an interview. The essays are grouped in three parts: Mathematics; Mathematics and Physics; and Language, Consciousness, and Book reviews. Most of the essays are about some aspects of epistemology and the history of sciences, mainly mathematics, physics, and the history of language. English translations of some of the essays, originally published in Russian, appear for the first time in this selection. One of them is the introduction to the book Computable and Uncomputable, where the idea of a quantum computer was first proposed in 1980. Another is an essay on the mythological trickster figure, where the evolutionary role of manipulative behavior is discussed in connection with the problem of the origin of human language. With the foreword by Freeman Dyson, this book will be of interest to anyone interested in the philosophy and history of mathematics, physics, and linguistics.

Potentiating Health and the Crisis of the Immune System

Integrative Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Modern Diseases

Author: S. Fulder,A. Mizrahi,N. Sheinman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489900594

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 1940

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With all the enormous resources that are invested in medicine, it is sometimes a mystery why there is so much sickness still in evidence. Our life span, though higher than at any time in history, has now leveled off and has not significantly increased in the last two generations. There is a one-third increase in long-term illness in the last 20 years and a 44% increase in cancer incidence, which are not related to demographic issues. In some modern countries, the level of morbidity (defined as days off work because of sickness) has increased by two thirds in this time. Despite $1 trillion spent on cancer research in 20 years, the "War On Cancer" has recently been pronounced a complete failure by the u. s. President's Cancer Panel. Evidently we still have a long way to go. The goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000" as the World Health Organization has put it, is another forgotten dream. As ever, the answer will be found in breaking out of the old philosophical patterns and discovering the new, as yet unacceptable concepts. The problems of medicine today require a Kuhnian breakthrough into new paradigms, and new ways of thinking. And these new ways will not be mere variations of the old, but radical departures. This book, and the conference upon which it was based, is part of a search for these new pathways.

Knowledge Representation and Metaphor

Author: E. Cornell Way

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401579415

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 948

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This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychol ogy through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The problems posed by metaphor and analogy are among the most challenging that confront the field of knowledge representation. In this study, Eileen Way has drawn upon the combined resources of philosophy, psychology, and computer science in developing a systematic and illuminating theoretical framework for understanding metaphors and analogies. While her work provides solutions to difficult problems of knowledge representation, it goes much further by investigating some of the most important philosophical assumptions that prevail within artificial intelligence today. By exposing the limitations inherent in the assumption that languages are both literal and truth-functional, she has advanced our grasp of the nature of language itself. J.R.F.

More Heat Than Light

Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics

Author: Philip Mirowski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521426893

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 450

View: 8277

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This is a history of how physics has drawn some inspiration from economics and how economics has sought to emulate physics, especially with regard to the theory of value. The author traces the development of the energy concept in Western physics and its subsequent effect on the invention and promulgation of neoclassical economics, the modern orthodox theory.

Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences

Author: F. Hallyn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401594422

Category: Philosophy

Page: 244

View: 6316

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This collection of papers contains historical case studies, systematic contributions of a general nature, and applications to specific sciences. The bibliographies of the contributions contain references to all central items from the traditions that are relevant today. While providing access to contemporary views on the issue, the papers illustrate the wide variety of functions of metaphors and analogies, as well as the many connections between the study of some of these functions and other subjects and disciplines.

The Chaos Theory of Careers

A New Perspective on Working in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Robert Pryor,Jim Bright

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113523129X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 5419

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The Chaos Theory of Careers outlines the application of chaos theory to the field of career development. It draws together and extends the work that the authors have been doing over the last 8 to 10 years. This text represents a new perspective on the nature of career development. It emphasizes the dimensions of careers frequently neglected by contemporary accounts of careers such as the challenges and opportunities of uncertainty, the interconnectedness of current life and the potential for information overload, career wisdom as a response to unplanned change, new approaches to vocational assessment based on emergent thinking, the place of spirituality and the search for meaning and purpose in, with and through work, the integration of being and becoming as dimensions of career development. It will be vital reading for all those working in and studying career development, either at advanced undergraduate or postgraduate level and provides a new and refreshing approach to this fast changing subject. Key themes include: Factors such as complexity, change, and contribution People's aspirations in relation to work and personal fulfilment Contemporary realities of career choice, career development and the working world

Metaphors: Figures of the Mind

Author: Z. Radman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792343561

Category: Philosophy

Page: 188

View: 7994

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This book deals with various aspects of metaphorics and yet it is not only, or perhaps not even primarily, about metaphor itself. Rather it is concerned with the argument from metaphor. In other words, it is about what I think we can learn from metaphor and the possible consequences of this lesson for a more adequate understanding, for instance, of our mental processes, the possibilities and limitations of our reasoning, the strictures of propositionality, the cognitive effect of fictional projections and so on. In this sense it is not, strictly speaking, a contribution to metaphorology; instead, it is an attempt to define the place of metaphor in the world of overall human intellectual activity, exemplary thematized here in the span that ranges from problems relating to the articulation of meanings up to general issues of creativity. Most of the aspects discussed, therefore, are examined not so much for the sake of gaining some new knowledge about metaphor (work conducted in the »science of metaphor« is presently so huge that an extra attempt to spell out another theory of metaphor may have an infiatory effect); the basic strategy of this book is to view metaphor within the complex of language usage and language competence, in human thought and action, and, finally, to see in what philosophically relevant way it improves our knowledge of ourselves. Certainly, by adopting this basic strategy we also simultaneously increase our knowledge of metaphors, of their functions and importance.

Atoms, Metaphors and Paradoxes

Niels Bohr and the Construction of a New Physics

Author: Sandro Petruccioli,Ian McGilvray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521031882

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 6478

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This book gives a detailed study of the development and the interpretation given to Niels Bohr's Principle of Correspondence. It also describes the role that this principle played in guiding Bohr's research over the critical period from 1920 to 1927. Quantum mechanics, developed in the 1920s and 1930s by Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Schrödinger and Dirac, represents one of the most profound turning points in science. This theory required a wholly new kind of physics in which many of the principles, concepts and models representing reality, that had formed the basis of classical physics since Galileo and Newton, had to be abandoned. This book re-examines the birth of quantum mechanics, in particular examining the development of crucial and original insights of Niels Bohr.

New Directions in Economic Methodology

Author: Roger E. Backhouse

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134864396

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 324

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In recent years there has been a flowering of work on economic methodology. However there is no longer any consensus about which direction this should take or, indeed, even what the role and content of economic methodology should be. This book reflects this diversity. Its contributors are responsible for the major developments in this field and together they give an account of all the major positions which currently prevail in economic methodology. These include attempts to rehabilitate the 'falsification' of Kuhn, Lakatos and Popper, sociology of knowledge approaches, different forms of realism, contributions from the 'rhetoric' project and other perspectives which view the economy as a text.

Die Ordnung der Zeit

Author: Carlo Rovelli

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644000751

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 6755

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Leben wir in der Zeit oder lebt die Zeit vielleicht nur in uns? Alle theoretischen Physiker von Weltrang, die den großen und kleinen Kräften des Universums nachspüren, beschäftigen sich immer wieder mit der entscheidenden Frage, was Zeit ist. Wenn ihre großen Modelle die Zeit zur Erklärung des Elementaren nicht mehr brauchen, wie kommt es dann, dass sie für unser Leben so wichtig ist? Geht es wirklich ohne sie? Carlo Rovelli gibt in diesem Buch überraschende Antworten. Er nimmt uns mit auf eine Reise durch unsere Vorstellungen der von der Zeit und spürt ihren Regeln und Rätseln nach. Ein großes, packend geschriebenes Lese-Abenteuer, ein würdiger Nachfolger des Welt-Bestsellers "Sieben kurze Lektionen über Physik".

Windows to the Mind

Metaphor, Metonymy and Conceptual Blending

Author: Sandra Handl,Hans-Jörg Schmid

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110238195

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 323

View: 5571

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Cognitive linguists are convinced that the nature of linguistic structures is strongly influenced by the way we experience and perceive the world and by how we conceptualize and construe these experiences and perceptions in our minds. At the same time, the study of linguistic structure and usage is credited with the potential to open windows to how our minds work. The present volume collects papers investigating linguistic phenomena that reflect the key cognitive processes of metaphor, metonymy and conceptual blending, which have proven to be highly influential in linguistic conceptualization. Theoretical and methodological issues, such as metaphor identification and the relevance of the target domain for children's understanding of metaphor, are focused on in the first section. The second and third parts are devoted to the application of the theoretical frameworks of the conceptual theory of metaphor and metonymy and the theory of conceptual blending to linguistic data. The contributions critically explore the explanatory potential of these theories, build bridges between them, link them with other approaches and notions (such as construction grammar, common ground and stance/evaluation), and uncover conceptual regularities and cognitive models that underlie and shape our language use in specific domains. The linguistic structures under consideration span the range from compounds and premodified noun phrases to constructions and texts such as jokes and political speeches. Methods applied include psycholinguistic experiments, analyses of data culled from authentic language corpora and discourse-analytical approaches.