Argumentation Schemes

Author: Douglas Walton,Christopher Reed,Fabrizio Macagno

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316583139

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined in the last chapter. It provides a systematic and comprehensive account, with notation suitable for computational applications that increasingly make use of argumentation schemes.

Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136687068

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 5897

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Recent concerns with the evaluation of argumentation in informal logic and speech communication center around nondemonstrative arguments that lead to tentative or defeasible conclusions based on a balance of considerations. Such arguments do not appear to have structures of the kind traditionally identified with deductive and inductive reasoning, but are extremely common and are often called "plausible" or "presumptive," meaning that they are only provisionally acceptable even when they are correct. How is one to judge, by some clearly defined standard, whether such arguments are correct or not in a given instance? The answer lies in what are called argumentation schemes -- forms of argument (structures of inference) that enable one to identify and evaluate common types of argumentation in everyday discourse. This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each. These two elements -- the scheme and the questions -- are then used to evaluate a given argument in a particular case in relation to a context of dialogue in which the argument occurred. In recent writings on argumentation, there is a good deal of stress placed on how important argumentation schemes are in any attempt to evaluate common arguments in everyday reasoning as correct or fallacious, acceptable or questionable. However, the problem is that the literature thus far has not produced a precise and user-friendly enough analysis of the structures of the argumentation schemes themselves, nor have any of the documented accounts been as helpful, accessible, or systematic as they could be, especially in relation to presumptive reasoning. This book solves the problem by presenting the most common presumptive schemes in an orderly and clear way that makes them explicit and useful as precisely defined structures. As such, it will be an indispensable tool for researchers, students, and teachers in the areas of critical thinking, argumentation, speech communication, informal logic, and discourse analysis.

Methods of Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107039304

Category: Computers

Page: 308

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This book, written by a leading expert, and based on the latest research, shows how to apply methods of argumentation to a range of examples.

Reflections on Theoretical Issues in Argumentation Theory

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Bart Garssen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331921103X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 293

View: 7684

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This volume presents a selection of papers reflecting key theoretical issues in argumentation theory. Its six sections are devoted to specific themes, including the analysis and evaluation of argumentation, argument schemes and the contextual embedding of argumentation. The section on general perspectives on argumentation discusses the trends of empiricalization, contextualization and formalization, offers descriptions of the analytical and evaluative tools of informal logic, and highlights selected principles that argumentation theorists do and do not agree upon. In turn, the section on linguistic approaches to argumentation focuses on the problem of distinguishing between explanation and argument, while also elaborating on the role of verbal indicators of argument schemes. All essays included in this volume point out notable recent developments in the study of argumentation.

Argumentative Indicators in Discourse

A Pragma-Dialectical Study

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Peter Houtlosser,A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402062443

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 234

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This volume identifies and analyses English words and expressions that are crucial for an adequate reconstruction of argumentative discourse. It provides a systematic set of instruments for giving a well founded analysis that results in an analytic overview of the elements that are relevant for the evaluation of the argumentation. By starting from everyday examples, the study immediately connects with the practice of argumentative discourse.

Engineering Multi-Agent Systems

5th International Workshop, EMAS 2017, Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 8-9, 2017, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Amal El Fallah-Seghrouchni,Alessandro Ricci,Tran Cao Son

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319918990

Category: Computers

Page: 199

View: 4284

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This book constitutes the revised and selected papers from the 5th International Workshop on Engineering Multi-Agent Systems held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in May 2018, in conjunction with AAMAS 2018. The 11 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 18 submissions. The book contains also the best paper of the workshop that has been published previously in another LNCS volume. The EMAS workshop focusses on the cross-fertilisation of ideas and experiences in the various fields with the aim to enhance knowledge and expertise in MAS engineering , to improve the state-of-the-art, to define new directions for MAS engineering, to investigate how established methodologies for engineering and large-scale and open MAS can be adapted.

Reasonableness and Effectiveness in Argumentative Discourse

Fifty Contributions to the Development of Pragma-Dialectics

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319209558

Category: Philosophy

Page: 904

View: 6303

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This volume presents 50 contributions on the themes of reasonableness and effectiveness and their connections, which are central issues in argumentation theory. It discusses van Eemeren’s views on the study of argumentation; the approach to argumentation adopted in pragma-dialectics; pragma-dialectical perspectives on the dialectical and pragmatic dimensions of argumentative discourse; the notion of strategic maneuvering; the pragma-dialectical method of analyzing argumentative discourse; the treatment of fallacies as violations of rules for critical discussion; pragma-dialectical views on context, the role of logic, verbal indicators of argumentative moves and argument schemes; and the process of writing and rewriting argumentative texts. The pragma-dialectical quantitative approach to empirical research on argumentative discourse is illustrated by reporting on selected, illustrative experimental studies, as well as qualitative studies of historical cases.

Argumentation across Communities of Practice

Multi-disciplinary perspectives

Author: Cornelia Ilie,Giuliana Garzone

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027265178

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 345

View: 3529

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Featuring multidisciplinary and transcultural investigations, this volume showcases state-of-the-art scholarship about the impact of argumentation-based discourses and field-specific argumentation practices in a wide range of communities of practice belonging to the media, social, legal and political spheres. The investigations make use of integrative, wide-ranging theoretical perspectives and empirical research methodologies with a focus on argumentation strategies in real-life environments, both private and public, and in constantly growing virtual environments. This book brings together linguists, argumentation scholars, philosophers and communication specialists who convincingly show how interpersonal and/or intergroup interactions shape, challenge or change the argumentative practices of users, what argumentation skills and strategies become critical and consequential, how argumentative discourse contexts may stimulate or prevent critical reflection and debate, and what are the wider implications at personal, institutional and societal levels. Reaching beyond the boundaries of linguistics and argumentation sciences, this book should be a valuable resource for researchers as well as practitioners in the fields of pragmatic linguistics, argumentation studies, rhetoric, discourse analysis, political sciences and media studies.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540251873

Category: Law

Page: 270

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Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.

Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521823197

Category: Philosophy

Page: 343

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Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation presents the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners. The book teaches by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed. Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to analyze and evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton shows how arguments can be reasonable under the right dialogue conditions by using critical questions to evaluate them.

Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory

Author: F. H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789053565230

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

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Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory is a collection of essays that discuss a series of important issues in the study of argumentation. The essays describe the concepts that are crucial to argumentational research and the various ways these concepts have been approached. The essays explore such issues as points of view, unexpressed premises, argument schemes, argumentation structures, fallacies, argument interpretation and reconstruction, and argumentation in law. Each of the essays provides interested readers with an overview of the literature that can serve as a point of departure for further study.

Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems

First International Workshop, ArgMAS 2004, New York, NY, USA, July 19, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Iyad Rahwan,Pavlos Moraitis,Chris Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540245261

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 263

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Ars Topica

The Classical Technique of Constructing Arguments from Aristotle to Cicero

Author: Sara Rubinelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140209549X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

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Ars Topica is the first full-length study of the nature and development of topoi, the conceptual ancestors of modern argument schemes, between Aristotle and Cicero. Aristotle and Cicero configured topoi in a way that influenced the subsequent tradition. Their work on the topos-system grew out of an interest in creating a theory of argumentation which could stand between the rigour of formal logic and the emotive potential of rhetoric. This system went through a series of developments and transformations resulting from the interplay between the separate aims of gaining rhetorical effectiveness and of maintaining dialectical standards. Ars Topica presents a comprehensive treatment of Aristotle’s and Cicero’s methods of topoi and, by exploring their relationship, it illuminates an area of ancient rhetoric and logic which has been obscured for more than two thousand years. Through an interpretation which is philologically rooted in the historical context of topoi, the book lays the ground for evaluating the relevance of the classical approaches to modern research on arguments, and at the same time provides an introduction to Greek and Roman theory of argumentation focussed on its most important theoretical achievements.

Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139952609

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of many clearly explained legal and non-legal examples. The model is shown to fit cases of everyday conversational argumentation as well as argumentation in legal cases. Burden of proof determines (1) under what conditions an arguer is obliged to support a claim with an argument that backs it up and (2) how strong that argument needs to be to prove the claim in question.

Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems

14th International Workshop, CLIMA XIV, Corunna, Spain, September 16-18, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Joao Leite,Tran Cao Son,Paolo Torroni,Leon van der Torre,Stefan Woltran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642406246

Category: Computers

Page: 391

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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems, CLIMA XIV, held in Corunna, Spain, in September 2013. The 23 regular papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions and presented with four invited talks. The purpose of the CLIMA workshops is to provide a forum for discussing techniques, based on computational logic, for representing, programming and reasoning about agents and multi-agent systems in a formal way. This edition will feature two special sessions: Argumentation Technologies and Norms and Normative Multi-Agent Systems.

Legal Argumentation and Evidence

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048338

Category: Law

Page: N.A

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A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.

Computational Models of Argument

Proceedings of COMMA 2008

Author: Philippe Besnard,Sylvie Doutre,Anthony Hunter

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1586038591

Category: Computers

Page: 429

View: 7005

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This volume of Computational Models of Argument focuses on the aim to develop software tools to assist users in constructing and evaluating arguments and counterarguments and/or to develop automated systems for constructing and evaluating arguments and counterarguments. Some articles provide a valuable snapshot of the leading research questions in the area of computational models of argument, others draw on the wealth of research on the philosophical questions surrounding the notions arising in argumentation, or address knowledge representation and reasoning issues emerging from modeling argumentation. They also consider appropriate models of wider rhetorical issues arising in argumentation and propose and evaluate algorithmic solutions associated with generating and judging constellations of arguments. Included are articles proposing standards for exchanging information associated with argumentation so that different systems can work together. In addition, some articles report practical working tools for computational argumentation.

Argumentation Machines

New Frontiers in Argument and Computation

Author: C. Reed,Timothy Norman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402018114

Category: Computers

Page: 240

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In the late 1990s, AI witnessed an increasing use of the term 'argumentation' within its bounds: in natural language processing, in user interface design, in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the legal community, and in the newly emerging field of multi-agent systems. It seemed to me that many of these uses of argumentation were inspired by (of ten inspired) guesswork, and that a great majority of the AI community were unaware that there was a maturing, rich field of research in Argumentation Theory (and Critical Thinking and Informal Logic) that had been steadily re building a scholarly approach to the area over the previous twenty years or so. Argumentation Theory, on its side; was developing theories and approaches that many in the field felt could have a role more widely in research and soci ety, but were for the most part unaware that AI was one of the best candidates for such application.