Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136687068

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 2800

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Recent concerns with the evaluation of argumentation in informal logic and speech communication center around nondemonstrative arguments that lead to tentative or defeasible conclusions based on a balance of considerations. Such arguments do not appear to have structures of the kind traditionally identified with deductive and inductive reasoning, but are extremely common and are often called "plausible" or "presumptive," meaning that they are only provisionally acceptable even when they are correct. How is one to judge, by some clearly defined standard, whether such arguments are correct or not in a given instance? The answer lies in what are called argumentation schemes -- forms of argument (structures of inference) that enable one to identify and evaluate common types of argumentation in everyday discourse. This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each. These two elements -- the scheme and the questions -- are then used to evaluate a given argument in a particular case in relation to a context of dialogue in which the argument occurred. In recent writings on argumentation, there is a good deal of stress placed on how important argumentation schemes are in any attempt to evaluate common arguments in everyday reasoning as correct or fallacious, acceptable or questionable. However, the problem is that the literature thus far has not produced a precise and user-friendly enough analysis of the structures of the argumentation schemes themselves, nor have any of the documented accounts been as helpful, accessible, or systematic as they could be, especially in relation to presumptive reasoning. This book solves the problem by presenting the most common presumptive schemes in an orderly and clear way that makes them explicit and useful as precisely defined structures. As such, it will be an indispensable tool for researchers, students, and teachers in the areas of critical thinking, argumentation, speech communication, informal logic, and discourse analysis.

Argumentation Schemes

Author: Douglas Walton,Christopher Reed,Fabrizio Macagno

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316583139

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined in the last chapter. It provides a systematic and comprehensive account, with notation suitable for computational applications that increasingly make use of argumentation schemes.

Inference in Argumentation

A Topics-Based Approach to Argument Schemes

Author: Eddo Rigotti,Sara Greco

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030045684

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 325

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This book investigates the role of inference in argumentation, considering how arguments support standpoints on the basis of different loci. The authors propose and illustrate a model for the analysis of the standpoint-argument connection, called Argumentum Model of Topics (AMT). A prominent feature of the AMT is that it distinguishes, within each and every single argumentation, between an inferential-procedural component, on which the reasoning process is based; and a material-contextual component, which anchors the argument in the interlocutors’ cultural and factual common ground. The AMT explains how these components differ and how they are intertwined within each single argument. This model is introduced in Part II of the book, following a careful reconstruction of the enormously rich tradition of studies on inference in argumentation, from the antiquity to contemporary authors, without neglecting medieval and post-medieval contributions. The AMT is a contemporary model grounded in a dialogue with such tradition, whose crucial aspects are illuminated in this book.

Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory

Author: F. H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789053565230

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 2884

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Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory is a collection of essays that discuss a series of important issues in the study of argumentation. The essays describe the concepts that are crucial to argumentational research and the various ways these concepts have been approached. The essays explore such issues as points of view, unexpressed premises, argument schemes, argumentation structures, fallacies, argument interpretation and reconstruction, and argumentation in law. Each of the essays provides interested readers with an overview of the literature that can serve as a point of departure for further study.

Methods of Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107039304

Category: Computers

Page: 308

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This book, written by a leading expert, and based on the latest research, shows how to apply methods of argumentation to a range of examples.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540251873

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 9854

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Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.

Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems

First International Workshop, ArgMAS 2004, New York, NY, USA, July 19, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Iyad Rahwan,Pavlos Moraitis,Chris Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540245261

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 263

View: 7360

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The theory of argumentation is a rich, interdisciplinary area of research involving philosophy, communications studies, linguistics, psychology, and logics. Its techniques have found a wide range of applications in both theoretical and practical branches of artificial intelligence and computer science. Multi-agent systems theory has picked up argumentation-inspired approaches and specifically argumentation-theoretic results from many different areas. Researchers in argumentation and multi-agent systems are currently enjoying a unique opportunity to integrate the various understandings of argument into a coherent and core part of the functioning of autonomous computational systems. This book originates from the First International Workshop on Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, ArgMAS 2004, held in New York, NY, USA in July 2004. Besides 12 selected revised full papers taken from the workshop, 4 additional papers by key people in the area round off overall coverage of the relevant topics. The papers address the following main topics: foundations of dialogues, belief revision, persuasion and deliberation, negotiation, and strategic issues.

Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems

14th International Workshop, CLIMA XIV, Corunna, Spain, September 16-18, 2013, Proceedings

Author: João Leite,Tran Cao Son,Paolo Torroni,Leon van der Torre,Stefan Woltran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642406246

Category: Computers

Page: 391

View: 4261

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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems, CLIMA XIV, held in Corunna, Spain, in September 2013. The 23 regular papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions and presented with four invited talks. The purpose of the CLIMA workshops is to provide a forum for discussing techniques, based on computational logic, for representing, programming and reasoning about agents and multi-agent systems in a formal way. This edition will feature two special sessions: Argumentation Technologies and Norms and Normative Multi-Agent Systems.

Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139952609

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of many clearly explained legal and non-legal examples. The model is shown to fit cases of everyday conversational argumentation as well as argumentation in legal cases. Burden of proof determines (1) under what conditions an arguer is obliged to support a claim with an argument that backs it up and (2) how strong that argument needs to be to prove the claim in question.

Argumentative Indicators in Discourse

A Pragma-Dialectical Study

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Peter Houtlosser,A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402062443

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 234

View: 2579

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This volume identifies and analyses English words and expressions that are crucial for an adequate reconstruction of argumentative discourse. It provides a systematic set of instruments for giving a well founded analysis that results in an analytic overview of the elements that are relevant for the evaluation of the argumentation. By starting from everyday examples, the study immediately connects with the practice of argumentative discourse.

Argumentation Machines

New Frontiers in Argument and Computation

Author: C. Reed,Timothy Norman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402018114

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 7850

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In the late 1990s, AI witnessed an increasing use of the term 'argumentation' within its bounds: in natural language processing, in user interface design, in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the legal community, and in the newly emerging field of multi-agent systems. It seemed to me that many of these uses of argumentation were inspired by (of ten inspired) guesswork, and that a great majority of the AI community were unaware that there was a maturing, rich field of research in Argumentation Theory (and Critical Thinking and Informal Logic) that had been steadily re building a scholarly approach to the area over the previous twenty years or so. Argumentation Theory, on its side; was developing theories and approaches that many in the field felt could have a role more widely in research and soci ety, but were for the most part unaware that AI was one of the best candidates for such application.

Argument, Inference and Dialectic

Collected Papers on Informal Logic with an Introduction by Hans V. Hansen

Author: R.C. Pinto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401707839

Category: Philosophy

Page: 148

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This volume contains 12 papers addressed to researchers and advanced students in informal logic and related fields, such as argumentation, formal logic, and communications. Among the issues discussed are attempts to rethink the nature of argument and of inference, the role of dialectical context, and the standards for evaluating inferences, and to shed light on the interfaces between informal logic and argumentation theory, rhetoric, formal logic and cognitive psychology.

Pondering on Problems of Argumentation

Twenty Essays on Theoretical Issues

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Bart Garssen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402091656

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 306

View: 8310

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Pondering on Problems of Argumentation is a collection of twenty essays brought together for anyone who is interested in theoretical issues in the study of argumentation. This collection of papers gives the reader an insightful and balanced view of the kind of theoretical issues argumentation theorists are currently concerned with. Because most of the perspectives on argumentation that are en vogue are represented, this volume provides a multidisciplinary and even interdisciplinary outlook on the current state of affairs in argumentation theory. Some of the contributions in Pondering on Problems of Argumentation deal with problems of argumentation that have been recognized as theoretical issues for a considerable time, like the problems of fallaciousness and identifying argumentation structures. Other contributions discuss issues that have become a focus of attention only recently or regained their prominence, such as the relationship between dialectic and rhetoric, and the strategic use of the argumentative technique of dissociation. In five separate sections papers are included dealing with argumentative strategies, problems of norms of reasonableness and fallaciousness, types of argument and argument schemes the structure of argumentation and rules for advocacy and discussion.

Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521823197

Category: Philosophy

Page: 343

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Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation presents the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners. The book teaches by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed. Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to analyze and evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton shows how arguments can be reasonable under the right dialogue conditions by using critical questions to evaluate them.

Abductive Reasoning

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: University of Alabama Press

ISBN: 0817357823

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 303

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A study of the role of abductive inference in everyday argumentation and legal evidence.

Scalable Uncertainty Management

7th International Conference, SUM 2013, Washington, DC, USA, September 16-18, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Weiru Liu,V S Subrahmanian,Jef Wijsen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642403816

Category: Computers

Page: 387

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Scalable Uncertainty Management, SUM 2013, held in Washington, DC, USA, in September 2013. The 26 revised full papers and 3 revised short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers cover topics in all areas of managing and reasoning with substantial and complex kinds of uncertain, incomplete or inconsistent information including applications in decision support systems, machine learning, negotiation technologies, semantic web applications, search engines, ontology systems, information retrieval, natural language processing, information extraction, image recognition, vision systems, data and text mining, and the consideration of issues such as provenance, trust, heterogeneity, and complexity of data and knowledge.

Legal Argumentation and Evidence

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048338

Category: Law

Page: N.A

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A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.

Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems

6th International Workshop, ArgMAS 2009, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 2009. Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Peter McBurney,Iyad Rahwan,Simon D. Parsons,Nicolas Maudet

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642128041

Category: Computers

Page: 321

View: 3781

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems, held in Budapest, Hungary, in May 2009, in association with the 8th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS 2009). The 18 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and are organized in four topical sections on practical reasoning and argument about action; persuasion and negotiation; argumentation theory; and applications and emotions.

Information Technology and Lawyers

Advanced Technology in the Legal Domain, from Challenges to Daily Routine

Author: Arno R. Lodder,Anja Oskamp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402041457

Category: Computers

Page: 198

View: 6439

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The area of Information Technology & Lawyers is a fascinating one. Both from a practical and an academic perspective the opportunities of applying Information Technology to law are tremendous. At the same time, however, lawyers are amongst the most conservative professionals, and traditional late adapters of technology. Nowadays the gap between Information Technology & Lawyers is closing more and more, in particular due to the Internet and the richness of legal sources that can be found online. This book provides material to further bridge the gap by showing people with a legal background what is possible with Information Technology now and in the near future, as well as by showing people with an IT background what opportunities exist in the domain of law. Any lawyer should read this book about the current practice of IT in the legal domain, and what is to be expected in the near future. The book is meant for both practitioners and academics, and can serve in any (post)graduate courses on computer science, law, business, etc. The editors Arno R. Lodder and Anja Oskamp are both affiliated to the Computer/Law Institute of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and before co-edited books on IT support of the Judiciary, as well as the first two editions of the Dutch handbook on IT & Lawyers.

Inside Arguments

Logic and the Study of Argumentation

Author: Henrique Jales Ribeiro

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443839310

Category: Philosophy

Page: 420

View: 7138

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This volume includes a collection of eighteen essays that provide a decisive input to the study of logic and argumentation theory by some of the finest specialists in these areas, covering the main schools of thought and contemporary trends at the beginning of the 21st century. In these essays, the authors clarify the status of what we currently call, ambiguously and problematically, “logic” and “argumentation theory”, and discuss the no less controversial issue of the relationship between these two concepts when applied to the study of argumentation and its problems. At the same time, they take stock of the most recent developments of argumentation theory considered as an ongoing research subject. It is the first time in the last few decades that a work this comprehensive and up-to-date on such matters has been published. This volume is an essential tool for all of those interested in the study of the relations between logic and argumentation, particularly at the university level. It provides not only an introduction to these subjects, but also the necessary framework for further specialised research development in the future.