A Terrible Revenge

The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans

Author: Alfred-Maurice de Zayas

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Trade

ISBN: 9781403973085

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 2922

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The genocidal barbarism of the Nazi forces has been well documented. What is little known is the fate of fifteen million German civilians who found themselves on the wrong side of new postwar borders. All over Eastern Europe, the inhabitants of communities that had been established for many centuries were either expelled or killed. Over two million Germans did not survive. Some of these people had supported Hitler, but the great majority were guiltless. In A Terrible Revenge, de Zayas describes this horrible retribution. This new edition includes an updated foreword, epilogue and additional information from recent interviews with the children of the displaced.

Orderly and Humane

The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second World War

Author: R. M. Douglas

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300166605

Category: History

Page: 486

View: 1331

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More than 12 million German-speaking civilians in Europe were driven from their homes in the wake of WWII, yet barely anyone noticed or remembers

Germans to Poles

Communism, Nationalism and Ethnic Cleansing After the Second World War

Author: Hugo Service

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107671485

Category: History

Page: 378

View: 8316

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This book examines the ways Poland dealt with the territories and peoples it gained from Germany after the Second World War.

Forgotten Voices

The Expulsion of the Germans from Eastern Europe after World War II

Author: Ulrich Merten

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412852587

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3520

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The news agency Reuters reported in 2009 that a mass grave containing 1,800 bodies was found in Malbork, Poland. Polish authorities suspected that they were German civilians that were killed by advancing Soviet forces. A Polish archeologist supervising the exhumation, said, "We are dealing with a mass grave of civilians, probably of German origin. The presence of children . . . suggests they were civilians." During World War II, the German Nazi regime committed great crimes against innocent civilian victims: Jews, Poles, Russians, Serbs, and other people of Central and Eastern Europe. At war's end, however, innocent German civilians in turn became victims of crimes against humanity. Forgotten Voices lets these victims of ethnic cleansing tell their story in their own words, so that they and what they endured are not forgotten. This volume is an important supplement to the voices of victims of totalitarianism and has been written in order to keep the historical record clear. The root cause of this tragedy was ultimately the Nazi German regime. As a leading German historian, Hans-Ulrich Wehler has noted, "Germany should avoid creating a cult of victimization, and thus forgetting Auschwitz and the mass killing of Russians." Ulrich Merten argues that applying collective punishment to an entire people is a crime against humanity. He concludes that this should also be recognized as a European catastrophe, not only a German one, because of its magnitude and the broad violation of human rights that occurred on European soil. Supplementary maps and pictures are available online at http://www.forgottenvoices.net

Ruined by the Reich

Memoir of an East Prussian Family, 1916-1945

Author: Christel Weiss Brandenburg,Daniel R. Laing

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786416157

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7613

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"Like Christel's brothers (soldiers and members of Hitler's Youth), propaganda-fed children all over the Reich believed the highly idealized depiction of their roles and of their nation's victims."--BOOK JACKET.

The Lost German East

Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory, 1945-1970

Author: Andrew Demshuk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107020735

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 646

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After 1945, Germany was inundated with ethnic German refugees expelled from Eastern Europe. Andrew Demshuk explores why they integrated into West German society.

Nemesis at Potsdam

The Expulsion of the Germans from the East

Author: Alfred M. De Zayas

Publisher: Bison Books

ISBN: 9780803299078

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 5086

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Savage Continent

Europe in the Aftermath of World War II

Author: Keith Lowe

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1250015049

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 9448

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The Second World War might have officially ended in May 1945, but in reality it rumbled on for another ten years... The end of the Second World War in Europe is one of the twentieth century's most iconic moments. It is fondly remembered as a time when cheering crowds filled the streets, danced, drank and made love until the small hours. These images of victory and celebration are so strong in our minds that the period of anarchy and civil war that followed has been forgotten. Across Europe, landscapes had been ravaged, entire cities razed and more than thirty million people had been killed in the war. The institutions that we now take for granted - such as the police, the media, transport, local and national government - were either entirely absent or hopelessly compromised. Crime rates were soaring, economies collapsing, and the European population was hovering on the brink of starvation. In Savage Continent, Keith Lowe describes a continent still racked by violence, where large sections of the population had yet to accept that the war was over. Individuals, communities and sometimes whole nations sought vengeance for the wrongs that had been done to them during the war. Germans and collaborators everywhere were rounded up, tormented and summarily executed. Concentration camps were reopened and filled with new victims who were tortured and starved. Violent anti-Semitism was reborn, sparking murders and new pogroms across Europe. Massacres were an integral part of the chaos and in some places – particularly Greece, Yugoslavia and Poland, as well as parts of Italy and France – they led to brutal civil wars. In some of the greatest acts of ethnic cleansing the world has ever seen, tens of millions were expelled from their ancestral homelands, often with the implicit blessing of the Allied authorities. Savage Continent is the story of post WWII Europe, in all its ugly detail, from the end of the war right up until the establishment of an uneasy stability across Europe towards the end of the 1940s. Based principally on primary sources from a dozen countries, Savage Continent is a frightening and thrilling chronicle of a world gone mad, the standard history of post WWII Europe for years to come.

The German Myth of the East

1800 to the Present

Author: Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199605165

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 1193

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An examination of the various different expressions of the distinctive German 'myth of the East' that has been such a marked feature of German culture over the last two centuries, influencing German attitudes both to Eastern Europe itself and also to Germans' own sense of identity.

Casualty of War

A Childhood Remembered

Author: Luisa Lang Owen

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 9781585442126

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 6271

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Not all casualties of war die on the battlefield. In the wake of World War II, Yugoslavia purged its territory of the ethnic Germans who had formed a part of its human mosaic. Tarred with their ethnic origins and the conscription of their fighting-age men into the Waffen SS, the Volksdeutsche, as these settlers were called, were rounded up at the war's end and herded into concentration camps. Those who were not murdered or did not die from the harsh conditions were expelled from the village homes their families had known and loved for three hundred years. Nine years old when she entered the concentration camp in 1945, author Luisa Lang Owen survived the persecution of the Danube Swabians, eventually finding herself in America, where she made a new life for herself, a life that nonetheless held within it the memories and lessons of the atrocities she had experienced in her homeland. Like thousands of other Germans in the Danube Valley at the end of the war, Luisa and her family were chased from their home, lodged in a sheep stall, and resettled in camps with other Germans from her village. Shorn of their possessions, given little food or fuel, pressed into hard labor, beaten by guards, and separated from their families, many despaired and many died. Luisa barely survived as others succumbed to malnutrition, disease, and exposure. Her haunting memoir provides a window into the ethnic cleansing that preceded the recent exterminations in Bosnia and Kosovo by fifty years—an episode of horrors that has not appeared as even a footnote in descriptions of the more recent atrocities practiced in that region. Her testament, as a casualty of war, bears historic witness and gives insight into the personal experiences of ethnic cleansing. It stands as witness to a massive crime that has been conveniently forgotten, a corrective to a bit of neglect that did away with its victims as a people, and a personal depiction of what ethnic cleansing is really about. “The problem was not just that they did not want us to have or to be,” Luisa Lang Owen writes, “they wanted us not to have been.”

Ethnic Cleansing and the European Union

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Security, Memory and Ethnography

Author: L. Tesser

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113730877X

Category: Political Science

Page: 268

View: 8594

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This book offers the first multi-case analysis of the politics of ethnic remixing in an expanding EU, including studies on Central Europe, the Balkans and Cyprus. Tesser explains the politics of minority return in a post-national Europe, with particular attention to the long-term aftermath of minority removal as a conflict resolution policy.

Prussian Apocalypse

The Fall of Danzig 1945

Author: Egbert Kieser

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 1783461209

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 388

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Egbert Kiesers graphic account of the Red Armys assault on East Prussia in 1945 is one of the classic histories of the destruction of Hitlers Germany. Using extensive, firsthand, unforgettable eyewitness testimony, he documents in riveting detail the catastrophe that overtook German civilians and soldiers as they fled from the Soviet onslaught and their world collapsed around them.

How to Accept German Reparations

Author: Susan Slyomovics

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812209656

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 8951

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In a landmark process that transformed global reparations after the Holocaust, Germany created the largest sustained redress program in history, amounting to more than $60 billion. When human rights violations are presented primarily in material terms, acknowledging an indemnity claim becomes one way for a victim to be recognized. At the same time, indemnifications provoke a number of difficult questions about how suffering and loss can be measured: How much is an individual life worth? How much or what kind of violence merits compensation? What is "financial pain," and what does it mean to monetize "concentration camp survivor syndrome"? Susan Slyomovics explores this and other compensation programs, both those past and those that might exist in the future, through the lens of anthropological and human rights discourse. How to account for variation in German reparations and French restitution directed solely at Algerian Jewry for Vichy-era losses? Do crimes of colonialism merit reparations? How might reparations models apply to the modern-day conflict in Israel and Palestine? The author points to the examples of her grandmother and mother, Czechoslovakian Jews who survived the Auschwitz, Plaszow, and Markkleeberg camps together but disagreed about applying for the post-World War II Wiedergutmachung ("to make good again") reparation programs. Slyomovics maintains that we can use the legacies of German reparations to reconsider approaches to reparations in the future, and the result is an investigation of practical implications, complicated by the difficult legal, ethnographic, and personal questions that reparations inevitably prompt.

Bread on My Mother's Table

A Danube Swabian Remembers

Author: Ingrid Andor

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780595466726

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 192

View: 5909

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Can the world accept ethnic Germans as victims of World War II? Are there similarities in the Holocausts that the Jews and the ethnic Germans suffered? Will Germans always be perceived as stereotypical villains, even those who are innocent victims? Can this book help heal the wounds of those forced to be unpopular, unacknowledged victims because of their ethnic heritage? Bread on My Mother's Table: A Danube Swabian Remembers examines the effects of the hidden genocide that occurred at the end of World War II in which a family of ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia was condemned to be victims of expulsion, ethnic cleansing, and forced labor in concentration camps at the hands of Russian and partisan soldiers. In a tapestry of episodes and family portraits which comprise this literary memoir, the author weaves a tale which illuminates, compares, exposes, and shares a family's history and their journey from feast to famine, from farmers to prisoners, from refugees to immigrants, and from American citizens to land owners once again. This is the story of one family's quiet struggle and victory over adversity told by a first generation progeny who takes the reader on a parallel journey of rediscovery and acceptance of her cultural identity.

Forgotten Voices

The Expulsion of the Germans from Eastern Europe after World War II

Author: Ulrich Merten

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412852587

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 8001

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The news agency Reuters reported in 2009 that a mass grave containing 1,800 bodies was found in Malbork, Poland. Polish authorities suspected that they were German civilians that were killed by advancing Soviet forces. A Polish archeologist supervising the exhumation, said, "We are dealing with a mass grave of civilians, probably of German origin. The presence of children . . . suggests they were civilians." During World War II, the German Nazi regime committed great crimes against innocent civilian victims: Jews, Poles, Russians, Serbs, and other people of Central and Eastern Europe. At war's end, however, innocent German civilians in turn became victims of crimes against humanity. Forgotten Voices lets these victims of ethnic cleansing tell their story in their own words, so that they and what they endured are not forgotten. This volume is an important supplement to the voices of victims of totalitarianism and has been written in order to keep the historical record clear. The root cause of this tragedy was ultimately the Nazi German regime. As a leading German historian, Hans-Ulrich Wehler has noted, "Germany should avoid creating a cult of victimization, and thus forgetting Auschwitz and the mass killing of Russians." Ulrich Merten argues that applying collective punishment to an entire people is a crime against humanity. He concludes that this should also be recognized as a European catastrophe, not only a German one, because of its magnitude and the broad violation of human rights that occurred on European soil. Supplementary maps and pictures are available online at http://www.forgottenvoices.net

The Death of East Prussia

War and Revenge in Germany's Easternmost Province

Author: Peter B. Clark

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781481935753

Category: History

Page: 562

View: 7153

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"This book focuses on what happened in East Prussia in World War II and afterward"--Introd.

International Humanitarian Law: Origins, Challenges, Prospects (3 Vols)

Author: John Carey,William V. Dunlap,R. John Pritchard

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 1571052674

Category: Law

Page: 3

View: 2836

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In three distinct volumes the editors bring together a distinguished group of contributors whose essays chart the history, practice, and future of international humanitarian law. At a time when the war crimes of recent decades are being examined in the International Criminal Tribunals for Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and a new International Criminal Court is being created as a permanent venue to try such crimes, the role of international humanitarian law is seminal to the functioning of such attempts to establish a just world order.The events of September 2001 and the worldwide threat of terrorist attacks, bring into sharper focus questions about the ramifications of unconventional warfare and how prisoners taken in armed conflict short of declared war should be treated. Here again international humanitarian law can provide the guideposts needed to find a just course through difficult times. The intent of these volumes is to help to inform where humanitarian law had its origins, how it has been shaped by world events, and why it can be employed to serve the future.