A History of Childhood

Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times

Author: Colin Heywood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745656811

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 1904

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In this lively and accessible book, Colin Heywood explores the changing experiences and perceptions of childhood from the early Middle Ages to the beginning of the twentieth century. Heywood examines the different ways in which people have thought about childhood as a stage of life, the relationships of children with their families and peers, and the experiences of young people at work, in school and at the hands of various welfare institutions. The aim is to place the history of children and childhood firmly in its social and cultural context, without losing sight of the many individual experiences that have come down to us in diaries, autobiographies and oral testimonies. Heywood argues that there is a cruel paradox at the heart of childhood in the past. On the one hand, material conditions for children have generally improved in the West, however belatedly and unevenly, and they are now more valued than in the past. On the other hand, the business of preparing for adulthood has become more complicated in urban and industrial societies, as the young face a bewildering array of choices and expectations. A History of Childhood will be an essential introduction to the subject for students of history, the social sciences and cultural studies.

The History of Childhood

Author: Lloyd deMause

Publisher: Jason Aronson, Incorporated

ISBN: 1461631378

Category: Psychology

Page: 462

View: 6028

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from the Foreword: Possibly the heartless treatment of children, from the practice of infanticide and abandonment through to the neglect, the rigors of swaddling, the purposeful starving, the beatings, the solitary confinement, and so on, was and is only one aspect of the basic aggressiveness and cruelty of human nature, of the inbred disregard of the rights and feelings of others. Children, being physically unable to resist aggression, were the victims of forces over which they had no control, and they were abused in many imaginable and some almost unimaginable ways by way of expressing conscious or more commonly unconscious motives of their elders... The present volume abounds in evidence of all kinds, from all periods and peoples. The story is monotonously painful, but it is high time that it should be told and that it should be taken into account...

A History of Childhood and Disability

Author: Philip L. Safford,Elizabeth J. Safford

Publisher: Teachers College Press

ISBN: 9780807734858

Category: Education

Page: 342

View: 6154

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In their chronological portrait, the authors synthesize the many voices of exceptional children, providing a historical picture that includes not only the perspective of the professional, but also, to the extent possible, that of the "client." The book begins by placing the origins of special education in historical context from Aristotle through the Enlightenment and beyond. Subsequent chapters consider individual "conditions" traditionally associated with specialized approaches (e.g., blindness, deafness, and retardation), discuss conditions that have given rise to further differentiation of childhood exceptionality, and offer a synthesis of themes and a prospective for a "new history," now emerging, of children considered exceptional.

Growing Up

The History of Childhood in a Global Context

Author: Peter N. Stearns

Publisher: Baylor University Press

ISBN: 1932792287

Category: History

Page: 65

View: 2555

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Growing Up combines two flourishing historical fields—the history of childhood and world history—to address the question of how much of childhood is natural and how much is historically determined. The first lecture gauges the impact of the development of agriculture, civilization, and religion upon the premodern experience of childhood. The second lecture contrasts modern perspectives on childhood with more traditional ones before investigating how and why modern perspectives developed and spread. These lectures clearly demonstrate that the transformation of childhood is both recent and sweeping.

Huck's Raft

A History of American Childhood

Author: Steven Mintz

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674015081

Category: History

Page: 445

View: 5040

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Explores many aspects of the changing societal role of children throughout American history, and credits the impact that children have had on major historical events.

Children Through the Ages

A History of Childhood

Author: Barbara Kaye Greenleaf

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Children

Page: 165

View: 5266

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A history of childhood from earliest times to today focusing on infancy, the middle years, and adolescence and discussing toys, games, food, diseases, discipline, clothing, health care, and education.

The Routledge History of Childhood in the Western World

Author: Paula S. Fass

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135121699

Category: History

Page: 536

View: 9853

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The Routledge History of Childhood in the Western World provides an important overview of the main themes surrounding the history of childhood in the West from antiquity to the present day. By broadly incorporating the research in the field of Childhood Studies, the book explores the major advances that have taken place in the past few decades in this crucial field.

A History of the Sociology of Childhood

Author: Berry Mayall

Publisher: Inst of Education

ISBN: 9781782770213

Category: Social Science

Page: 51

View: 7738

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This concise book gives a history of how the sociology of childhood has developed, contextualised in the history of sociology. It draws on the author’s own experiences, considers a wide range of published documents and includes contributions on specific topics by some of the main players in the field: Jens Qvortrup, Priscilla Alderson, Liesbeth de Block and Virginia Morrow.The book describes how this relatively new discipline evolved and considers its principal propositions. It looks back to the post-war period, notably in the USA, and shows how sociological ideas about childhood arose from developmental psychology; how they began to be formulated to act in complement to psychological ideas and how some US psychologists began to explore variations in ideas about childhood in varying societies. It also explores the history of sociological ideas about childhood in both the UK and, most importantly, mainstream Europe and considers links between sociological and rights agendas.This book concludes with consideration of the latest developments in this field such as globalisation and media studies; work in other languages, such as French and Portuguese and gives an account of work emerging in the majority world and its relevance for theoretical developments. It is essential reading for university students on all varieties of childhood courses. It contextualises this field within theory and provides a clear picture of the constituents of the discipline. It is also relevant to those working within psychological paradigms but with an interest in considering alternative and complementary approaches.

The Global History of Childhood Reader

Author: Heidi Morrison

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135764875

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 563

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The Global History of Childhood Reader provides an essential collection of chapters and articles on the global history of childhood. The Reader is structured thematically so as to provide both a representative sampling of the historiography as well as an overview of the key issues of the field, such as childhood as a social construct, commonalities and differences globally, and why the twentieth century was not the "century of the child" for most of the world’s children. The Reader is divided into four parts: Theories and methodologies of the history of childhood Constructions of childhood in different times and places Children’s experiences in different times and places Usage of the past to articulate solutions to problems facing children today. Topics covered include theories and methodologies in the global history of childhood, sources for writing a global history of childhood, education, gender, disability, race, class and religion, the individual in history and emotions, violence, labour and illiteracy. With introductions that contextualize each of the four parts and the articles, further reading sections and questions; this is the perfect guide for all students of the history of childhood.

How We Played

A History of Childhood Games

Author: Caroline Goodfellow

Publisher: History PressLtd

ISBN: 9780752443300

Category: Games & Activities

Page: 192

View: 9495

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In this fascinating trip down memory lane, former curator of dolls and games at the V&A Museum Caroline Goodfellow explores the history of childhood games and how they have changed from ancient times to the modern day.

The Devil's Children

A History of Childhood and Murder

Author: Loretta Loach

Publisher: Totem Books

ISBN: 9781848310193

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 8281

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This book offers a true crime history - from medieval society to Jamie Bulger - of children who kill and how adults have tried to make sense of them.The extraordinary and horrifying crime of murder by children of other children commands widespread public interest, but has this always been so? Focusing on the earliest recorded cases, up to and including the tragic killing of James Bulger, this fascinating investigation goes beyond the notoriety of the crimes to explore the real-life stories of the children who committed them and the adult world in which they took place.As well as asking what has changed in the treatment and punishment of these children, and in how they have been viewed by the Church, the courts and the medical profession, it also reveals how these unusual crimes were as pivotal then as they are now in wider deliberations about childhood, morality and the troubling boundaries between innocence and experience.The intriguing story of these crimes is deftly woven together with the keen insights of social history and a groundbreaking depiction of how the legal and medical cultures used such cases to rethink human agency and responsibility.

The End of American Childhood

A History of Parenting from Life on the Frontier to the Managed Child

Author: Paula S. Fass

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400880432

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 1107

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The End of American Childhood takes a sweeping look at the history of American childhood and parenting, from the nation's founding to the present day. Renowned historian Paula Fass shows how, since the beginning of the American republic, independence, self-definition, and individual success have informed Americans' attitudes toward children. But as parents today hover over every detail of their children's lives, are the qualities that once made American childhood special still desired or possible? Placing the experiences of children and parents against the backdrop of social, political, and cultural shifts, Fass challenges Americans to reconnect with the beliefs that set the American understanding of childhood apart from the rest of the world. Fass examines how freer relationships between American children and parents transformed the national culture, altered generational relationships among immigrants, helped create a new science of child development, and promoted a revolution in modern schooling. She looks at the childhoods of icons including Margaret Mead and Ulysses S. Grant—who, as an eleven-year-old, was in charge of his father's fields and explored his rural Ohio countryside. Fass also features less well-known children like ten-year-old Rose Cohen, who worked in the drudgery of nineteenth-century factories. Bringing readers into the present, Fass argues that current American conditions and policies have made adolescence socially irrelevant and altered children's road to maturity, while parental oversight threatens children's competence and initiative. Showing how American parenting has been firmly linked to historical changes, The End of American Childhood considers what implications this might hold for the nation's future.

A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Age of Enlightenment

Author: Elizabeth Foyster,James Marten

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9781472554703

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 5359

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The collection of ideas, values, and beliefs known as the Enlightenment fundamentally altered the ways in which the family was understood. During this period, 1650–1800, traditional family roles were rethought, questioning much which had been taken for granted, such as the innate nature of children. At the same time, the Enlightenment also reinforced many long-held notions, applying new ideas to perpetuate assumptions about gender and race. The commercialization of agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization, as well as the opportunities presented by expanding education and the sale of domestic goods all impacted on the family. Further, the continuing expansion of Western empires, the ownership of slaves within American states, and the political turmoil of the American and French revolutions all helped to shape both the ideals and the experience of family life. As with all the volumes in the illustrated Cultural History of Childhood and Family set, this volume presents essays on family relationships, community, economy, geography and the environment, education, life cycle, the state, faith and religion, health and science, and world contexts.

A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Early Modern Age

Author: Sandra Cavallo,Silvia Evangelisti

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9781472554697

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 7358

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The period spanning the 15th to the 17th Centuries saw an unprecedented interest in childrearing and the family. Renaissance humanist thought valued the education of children while promoting the family as a mirror of a well-ordered society, based on class, gender, and age hierarchies. Protestant and Catholic reformers and state-sponsored disciplinary measures further reinforced authority within the family, with marriage seen as a primary instrument for moralizing sexual customs. The proliferation of printed books and artworks representing the family popularized models of domestic life across Europe and its newly acquired colonies. At the same time, high mortality, repeated wars, poverty, increased migration, and geographical mobility severely undermined these idealized notions of family and childhood, giving rise to a wide range of unconventional and highly unstable households. As with all the volumes in the illustrated Cultural History of Childhood and Family set, this volume presents essays on family relationships, community, economy, geography and the environment, education, life cycle, the state, faith and religion, health and science, and world contexts.

The History of Childhood: A Very Short Introduction

Author: James Marten

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190681403

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 2112

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While children are a relatively unchanging fact of life, childhood is a constantly shifting concept. Throughout the millennia, the age at which a child becomes a youth and a youth becomes an adult has varied by gender, class, religion, ethnicity, place, and economic need. As author James Marten explores in this Very Short Introduction, so too have the realities of childhood, each life shaped by factors such as education, expectation, and conflict (or lack thereof). Indeed, ancient Roman children lived very differently than those born of today's Generation Z. Experiences of childhood have been shaped in classrooms and on factory floors, in family homes and orphanages, and on battlefields and in front of television sets. In addressing this diversity, The History of Childhood: A Very Short Introduction takes a global, expansive view of the features of childhood that have shaped childhood throughout history and continue to shape it now. From the rules of Confucian childrearing in twelfth-century China to the struggles of children living as slaves in the Americas or as cotton mill workers in Industrial Age Britain, Marten takes his inspiration from the idea that the lives of children reveal important and sometimes uncomfortable truths about civilization. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Australian Childhood

A History

Author: Jan Kociumbas

Publisher: Allen & Unwin

ISBN: 9781864480597

Category: Social Science

Page: 276

View: 1751

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The first comprehensive history of childhood in Australia, this traces the experience of growing up from the early days of white settlement to the present.

The Sociology of Childhood

Author: William A. Corsaro

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 9780761987512

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 5081

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′The provision of many amusing examples from Corsaro′s own research experience with children make his book a thoroughly enjoyable read as well as a valuable critical sociological analysis of childhood′ - Sociology The Sociology of Childhood is the Second Edition of a text that has been universally acclaimed as the best book on the subject available today. It is the only text that thoroughly covers children and childhood from a sociological perspective. The second edition retains the same quality coverage of social theories of childhood, the consideration of children and childhood in historical and cultural perspective, children′s peer cultures from preschool through preadolescence, and the social problems of children. The book has been updated to include new research, information, and discussions on the latest social indicators regarding children in the United States and around the world. Key Features New chapter on up-to-date methods of research for studying children. New chapters on theory, cultural change, and children′s peer cultures. New section on children′s rights including a description and discussion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Updated chapter on the Future of Childhood addresses current policy debates and changing demographics related to children in today′s societies. Contains many examples of children′s actual play and behavior. Provides photographs and charts that capture the complexity and diversity of children′s lives. The Sociology of Childhood is highly recommended for use as the core text in courses on the sociology of children and childhood, as well as for parents, teachers, and other adults interested in the social lives and development of children. It can also be used in early education, child development, and child psychology courses, and as a supplemental text in the area of family studies. William A. Corsaro is the Robert H. Shaffer Class of 1967 Endowed Professor of Sociology at Indiana University, Bloomington, where he teaches courses on the sociology of childhood, childhood in contemporary society, and ethnographic research methods. Corsaro is the author of Friendship and Peer Culture in the Early Years (1985) and "We′re Friends, Right": Inside Kids′ Culture (2003). He was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow in Bologna, Italy, in 1983-84 and a Fulbright Senior Specialist Fellow in Trondheim, Norway, in 2003. His research has been featured on NPR, the BBC in London, and in the New Yorker.

A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in Antiquity

Author: Mary Harlow,Ray Laurence

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9781472554734

Category: History

Page: 264

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Childhood and families had a ubiquitous and central presence in the ancient world, but one which is often hidden from us. Underlying our understanding of childhood and the family in Antiquity are the key thinkers and writers of the period. Their ideas on children, growing up, and the stages of life have shaped thinking on these subjects right up to the present day. Focusing on the cultures of the Mediterranean from 800 BCE to 800 CE, A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in Antiquity covers the rise of democratic Athens, the Hellenistic World, and the evolution and transformation of the Roman Empire. As with all the volumes in the illustrated Cultural History of Childhood and Family set, this volume presents essays on family relations, community, economy, geography and environment, education, life cycle, the state, faith and religion, health and science, and world contexts.

Childhood in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

The Results of a Paradigm Shift in the History of Mentality

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110895447

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 451

View: 9512

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Earlier theses on the history of childhood can now be laid to rest and a fundamental paradigm shift initiated, as there is an overwhelming body of evidence to show that in medieval and early modern times too there were close emotional relations between parents and children. The contributors to this volume demonstrate conclusively on the one hand how intensively parents concerned themselves with their children in the pre-modern era, and on the other which social, political and religious conditions shaped these relationships. These studies in emotional history demonstrate how easy it is for a subjective choice of sources, coupled with faulty interpretations – caused mainly by modern prejudices toward the Middle Ages in particular – to lead to the view that in the past children were regarded as small adults. The contributors demonstrate convincingly that intense feelings – admittedly often different in nature – shaped the relationship between adults and children.

Shaping Childhood

Themes of Uncertainty in the History of Adult-Child Relationships

Author: Roger Cox

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113483618X

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 9856

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What part has religion played in the history of child-rearing? How do we persuade children to behave rationally and how should we exercise adult authority? What use do we make of their innocence and how do we cope with their sexuality? Has history left us with ideas about the child which make no sense in the prevailing conditions of the late twentieth century? In Shaping Childhood these questions are explored through themes from the history of childhood. The myth of the repressive Puritan parent is explored by looking at Puritan ideals of child-rearing. Treating the child as if it were rational seemed to Locke the best way to approach child-rearing, but Rousseau was sceptical of adult manipulation and Romanticism could be subversive of both religion and reason as sources of discipline in child-rearing. The Victorians inherited many of the contradictions these approaches gave rise to, and they added a complication of their own through an aesthetic response to childhood's beauty. Currently, with instability in household formation and with the child exposed to ever more sophisticated means of communication, parents, teachers and others struggle to make sense of this ambiguous historical legacy. Shaping Childhood examines the ways in which broad cultural forces such as religion, literature and mass consumption influence contemporary parenting and locates child professionals, within the context of these forces.