A Course in Probability Theory

Author: Kai Lai Chung

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570402

Category: Mathematics

Page: 365

View: 4054

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This book contains about 500 exercises consisting mostly of special cases and examples, second thoughts and alternative arguments, natural extensions, and some novel departures. With a few obvious exceptions they are neither profound nor trivial, and hints and comments are appended to many of them. If they tend to be somewhat inbred, at least they are relevant to the text and should help in its digestion. As a bold venture I have marked a few of them with a * to indicate a "must", although no rigid standard of selection has been used. Some of these are needed in the book, but in any case the reader's study of the text will be more complete after he has tried at least those problems.

Statistics for Research

Author: Shirley Dowdy,Stanley Wearden,Daniel Chilko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471477427

Category: Mathematics

Page: 640

View: 9642

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Praise for the Second Edition "Statistics for Research has other fine qualities besides superior organization. The examples and the statistical methods are laid out with unusual clarity by the simple device of using special formats for each. The book was written with great care and is extremely user-friendly."—The UMAP Journal Although the goals and procedures of statistical research have changed little since the Second Edition of Statistics for Research was published, the almost universal availability of personal computers and statistical computing application packages have made it possible for today's statisticians to do more in less time than ever before. The Third Edition of this bestselling text reflects how the changes in the computing environment have transformed the way statistical analyses are performed today. Based on extensive input from university statistics departments throughout the country, the authors have made several important and timely revisions, including: Additional material on probability appears early in the text New sections on odds ratios, ratio and difference estimations, repeated measure analysis, and logistic regression New examples and exercises, many from the field of the health sciences Printouts of computer analyses on all complex procedures An accompanying Web site illustrating how to use SAS® and JMP® for all procedures The text features the most commonly used statistical techniques for the analysis of research data. As in the earlier editions, emphasis is placed on how to select the proper statistical procedure and how to interpret results. Whenever possible, to avoid using the computer as a "black box" that performs a mysterious process on the data, actual computational procedures are also given. A must for scientists who analyze data, professionals and researchers who need a self-teaching text, and graduate students in statistical methods, Statistics for Research, Third Edition brings the methodology up to date in a very practical and accessible way.

Statistik-Workshop für Programmierer

Author: Allen B. Downey

Publisher: O'Reilly Germany

ISBN: 3868993436

Category: Computers

Page: 160

View: 9814

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Wenn Sie programmieren können, beherrschen Sie bereits Techniken, um aus Daten Wissen zu extrahieren. Diese kompakte Einführung in die Statistik zeigt Ihnen, wie Sie rechnergestützt, anstatt auf mathematischem Weg Datenanalysen mit Python durchführen können. Praktischer Programmier-Workshop statt grauer Theorie: Das Buch führt Sie anhand eines durchgängigen Fallbeispiels durch eine vollständige Datenanalyse -- von der Datensammlung über die Berechnung statistischer Kennwerte und Identifikation von Mustern bis hin zum Testen statistischer Hypothesen. Gleichzeitig werden Sie mit statistischen Verteilungen, den Regeln der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung, Visualisierungsmöglichkeiten und vielen anderen Arbeitstechniken und Konzepten vertraut gemacht. Statistik-Konzepte zum Ausprobieren: Entwickeln Sie über das Schreiben und Testen von Code ein Verständnis für die Grundlagen von Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und Statistik: Überprüfen Sie das Verhalten statistischer Merkmale durch Zufallsexperimente, zum Beispiel indem Sie Stichproben aus unterschiedlichen Verteilungen ziehen. Nutzen Sie Simulationen, um Konzepte zu verstehen, die auf mathematischem Weg nur schwer zugänglich sind. Lernen Sie etwas über Themen, die in Einführungen üblicherweise nicht vermittelt werden, beispielsweise über die Bayessche Schätzung. Nutzen Sie Python zur Bereinigung und Aufbereitung von Rohdaten aus nahezu beliebigen Quellen. Beantworten Sie mit den Mitteln der Inferenzstatistik Fragestellungen zu realen Daten.

Probability Theory

Third Edition

Author: Michel Loeve

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486814882

Category: Mathematics

Page: 704

View: 3209

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Following its 1963 publication, this volume served as the standard advanced text in probability theory. Suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, the treatment includes extensive introductory material.

Issues in Applied Mathematics: 2013 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1490108556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1223

View: 2681

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Issues in Applied Mathematics / 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Mathematical Physics. The editors have built Issues in Applied Mathematics: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Mathematical Physics in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Applied Mathematics: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Issues in Logic, Probability, Combinatorics, and Chaos Theory: 2013 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1490107509

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1037

View: 9864

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Issues in Logic, Probability, Combinatorics, and Chaos Theory: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Approximation Theory. The editors have built Issues in Logic, Probability, Combinatorics, and Chaos Theory: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Approximation Theory in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Logic, Probability, Combinatorics, and Chaos Theory: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung fÃ1⁄4r Dummies

Author: Deborah J. Rumsey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527805494

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

View: 4516

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Die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung wird in der Schule oft nur beilï¿1⁄2ufig behandelt, dabei handelt es sich um ein besonders spannendes und alltagstaugliches Teilgebiet der Mathematik. Fï¿1⁄2r alle, die ï¿1⁄2ber dieses Thema noch etwas mehr erfahren wollen oder mï¿1⁄2ssen, erklï¿1⁄2rt Deborah Rumsey verstï¿1⁄2ndlich und mit Humor, was sie unbedingt wissen sollten. Egal ob Kontingenztabelle, zentraler Grenzwertsatz, Stichproben-, Binomial- oder Poissonverteilung, in diesem Buch lernen Sie, was es ist und wie Sie es anwenden. Zu jedem Kapitel finden Sie online eine ï¿1⁄2bungsaufgabe samt Lï¿1⁄2sung, um das Gelernte zu festigen. Auch Tipps zu praktischen Anwendungen - ob bei der Arbeit oder am Pokertisch - kommen nicht zu kurz. So finden Sie in diesem Buch alles, was Sie ï¿1⁄2ber Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung unbedingt wissen sollten.

Class Counts Student Edition

Author: Erik Olin Wright

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521663946

Category: Social Science

Page: 289

View: 2412

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This textbook provides students with a lively and penetrating exploration of the concept of class and its relevance for understanding a wide range of issues in contemporary society. Erik Olin Wright treats class as a common explanatory factor and examines three broad themes: class structure, class and gender, and class consciousness. Specific empirical studies include such diverse topics as class variations in the gender division of labour in housework; friendship networks across class boundaries; the American class structure since 1960; and cross-national variations in class consciousness. The author evaluates these studies in the light of expectations within the Marxist tradition of class analysis. This Student Edition of Class Counts thus combines Wright's sophisticated account of central and enduring questions in social theory with practical analyses of detailed social problems.

Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464966869

Category: Social Science

Page: 398

View: 8732

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Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research. The editors have built Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963479

Category: Science

Page: 3278

View: 3242

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Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method. The editors have built Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Parkinsonian Disorders: Advances in Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464923582

Category: Medical

Page: 231

View: 7510

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Parkinsonian Disorders: Advances in Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Parkinsonian Disorders. The editors have built Parkinsonian Disorders: Advances in Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Parkinsonian Disorders in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Parkinsonian Disorders: Advances in Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of The Adult Patient: Sixth Edition

Author: Allan H Goroll,Albert G Mulley, Jr.

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 1451121598

Category:

Page: 1632

View: 333

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Now in its Sixth Edition, this comprehensive text provides pertinent information on medical diagnosis, therapy, lab tests, and health maintenance essential to decision making in primary care medicine. Every chapter has been revised to include more images, tables, and bulleted lists. Practical recommendations that incorporate the best available evidence, expert consensus guidelines, and clinical judgement are listed in bulleted items at the end of every chapter. The dermatology section has been extensively revised for this edition by a new section editor. A companion Website offers the fully searchable text and an image bank. This is the tablet version which does not include access to the supplemental content mentioned in the text.

Counseling Adults in Transition, Fourth Edition

Linking Schlossberg’s Theory With Practice in a Diverse World

Author: Mary Anderson, PhD,Jane Goodman, PhD,Nancy K. Schlossberg, EdD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826106366

Category: Psychology

Page: 360

View: 2907

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The only textbook explicitly designed to address counseling with adults who are coping with individual, relationship, and work transitions, this volume integrates the basic tenets of adult development with therapeutic practice. It is based on Schlossberg's theory of transitions, a new process and content model that offers effective techniques for helping adults to understand and successfully navigate normal life transitions. This revised edition addresses contemporary societal ills that exacerbate adult life transitions, such as a tumultuous economy, increased unemployment, bankruptcies, and foreclosures, and focuses on our increasing racial and cultural diversity. The volume also expands its consideration of spiritual and social justice issues and provides a more integrated and holistic approach to adult transitional counseling. Key Features of the New Edition: Based on Schlossberg's technique, a new model for counseling adults in transition Offers practical new strategies and exercises for use in transitional counseling Addresses unemployment and coping in an uncertain social/economic context Focuses on loss and resilience, diversity, culture, social justice, and spirituality Contains new sections on transitioning to adulthood, living arrangements including diverse family structures, mobility, siblings, in-laws, and retirement Introduces new concepts such as collectivist coping, hardiness, mindfulness, and transcendence

Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963665

Category: Psychology

Page: 2915

View: 1078

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Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling. The editors have built Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, 2nd Edition [3 volumes]

An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law

Author: Gregg Lee Carter

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313386714

Category: History

Page: 1096

View: 8215

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Thoroughly updated and greatly expanded from its original edition, this three-volume set is the go-to comprehensive resource on the legal, social, psychological, political, and public health aspects of guns in American life. • 450 alphabetically organized entries, including 100 new for this edition, covering key issues (suicide, video games and gun violence, firearm injury statistics) and events (workplace shootings, the Virginia Tech massacre) • 102 expert contributors from all academic fields involved in studying the causes and effects of gun violence • A chronology of pivotal moments and controversies in the history of firearm ownership and use in the United States • An exhaustive bibliography of print and online resources covering all aspects of the study of guns in the United States • Appendices on federal gun laws, state gun laws, and pro- and anti-gun-control organizations

Issues in Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 146496498X

Category: Medical

Page: 1041

View: 6978

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Issues in Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research. The editors have built Issues in Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Geriatric Medicine and Aging Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Computational Probability

Algorithms and Applications in the Mathematical Sciences

Author: John H. Drew,Diane L. Evans,Andrew G. Glen,Lawrence M. Leemis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319433237

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 1392

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This new edition includes the latest advances and developments in computational probability involving A Probability Programming Language (APPL). The book examines and presents, in a systematic manner, computational probability methods that encompass data structures and algorithms. The developed techniques address problems that require exact probability calculations, many of which have been considered intractable in the past. The book addresses the plight of the probabilist by providing algorithms to perform calculations associated with random variables. Computational Probability: Algorithms and Applications in the Mathematical Sciences, 2nd Edition begins with an introductory chapter that contains short examples involving the elementary use of APPL. Chapter 2 reviews the Maple data structures and functions necessary to implement APPL. This is followed by a discussion of the development of the data structures and algorithms (Chapters 3–6 for continuous random variables and Chapters 7–9 for discrete random variables) used in APPL. The book concludes with Chapters 10–15 introducing a sampling of various applications in the mathematical sciences. This book should appeal to researchers in the mathematical sciences with an interest in applied probability and instructors using the book for a special topics course in computational probability taught in a mathematics, statistics, operations research, management science, or industrial engineering department.

Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963509

Category: Medical

Page: 3453

View: 8722

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Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine. The editors have built Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Statistics for Research, 3rd Edition, Dowdy-Wearden-Chilko, 2004

Statistics for Research,

Author: John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 634

View: 8261

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PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION In preparation for the third edition, we sent an electronic mail questionnaire to every statistics department in the United States with a graduate program. We wanted modal opinion on what statistical procedures should be addressed in a statistical methods course in the twenty-first century. Our findings can readily be summarized as a seeming contradiction. The course has changed little since R. A. Fisher published the inaugural text in 1925, but it also has changed greatly since then. The goals, procedures, and statistical inference needed for good research remain unchanged, but the nearly universal availability of personal computers and statistical computing application packages make it possible, almost daily, to do more than ever before. The role of the computer in teaching statistical methods is a problem Fisher never had to face, but today’s instructor must face it, fortunately without having to make an all-or-none choice. We have always promised to avoid the black-box concept of computer analysis by showing the actual arithmetic performed in each analysis, and we remain true to that promise. However, except for some simple computations, with every example of a statistical procedure in which we demonstrate the arithmetic, we also give the results of a computer analysis of the same data. For easy comparison we often locate them near each other, but in some instances we find it better to have a separate section for computer analysis. Because of greater familiarity with them, we have chosen the SASw and JMPw, computer applications developed by the SAS Institute.† SAS was initially written for use on large main frame computers, but has been adapted for personal computers. JMP was designed for personal computers, and we find it more interactive than SAS. It is also more visually oriented, with graphics presented in the output before any numerical values are given. But because SAS seems to remain the computer application of choice, we present it more frequently than JMP. Two additions to the text are due to responses to our survey. In the preface to the first edition, we stated our preference for discussing probability only when it is needed to explain some aspect of statistical analysis, but many respondents felt a course in statistical methods needs a formal discussion of probability. We have attempted to “have it both ways” by including a very short presentation of probability in the first chapter, but continuing to discuss it as needed. Another frequent response was the idea that a statistical analysis course now should include some minimal discussion of logistic regression. This caused us almost to surrender to black-box instruction. It is fairly easy to understand the results of a computer analysis of logistic regression, but many of our students have a mathematical background a bit shy of that needed for performing logistic regression analysis. Thus we discuss it, with a worked example, in the last section to make it available for those with the necessary †SAS and JMP are registered trademarks of SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. ix mathematical background, but to avoid alarming other students who might see the mathematics and feel they recognize themselves in Stevie Smith’s poem†: Nobody heard him, the dead man, But still he lay moaning: I was much further out than you thought And not waving but drowning. Consulting with research workers at West Virginia University has caused us to add some topics not found in earlier editions. Many of our examples and exercises reflect actual research problems for which we provided the statistical analysis. That has not changed, but the research areas that seek our help have become more global. In earlier years we assisted agricultural, biological, and behavioral scientists who can design prospective studies, and in our text we tried to meet the needs of their students. After helping researchers in areas such as health science who must depend on retrospective studies, we made additions for the benefit of their students as well. We added examples to show how statistics is applied to health research and now discuss risks, odds and their ratios, as well as repeated-measures analysis. While helping researchers prepare manuscripts for publication, we learned that some journals prefer the more conservative Bonferroni procedures, so we have added them to the discussion of mean separation techniques in Chapter 10. We also have a discussion of ratio and difference estimation. However, that inclusion may be self-serving to avoid yet another explanation of “Why go to the all the trouble of least squares when it is so much easier to use a ratio?” Now we can refer the questioner to the appropriate section in Chapter 9. There are additions to the exercises as well as the body of the text. We believe our students enjoy hearing about the research efforts of Sir Francis Galton, that delightfully eccentric but remarkably ingenious gentleman scientist of Victorian England. To make them suitable exercises, we have taken a few liberties with some of his research efforts, but only to demonstrate the breadth of ideas of a pioneer who thought everything is measurable and hence tractable to quantitative analysis. In respect for a man who—dare we say?—“thought outside the black box,” many of the exercises that relate to Galton will require students to think on their own as he did. We hope that, like Galton himself, those who attempt these exercises will accept the challenge and not be too concerned when they do not succeed. We are pleased that Daniel M. Chilko, a long-time colleague, has joined us in this endeavor. His talents have made it easier to update sections on computer analysis, and he will serve as webmaster for the web site that will now accompany the text. We wish to acknowledge the help we received from many people in preparation of this edition. Once again, we thank SAS Institute for permission to discuss their SAS and JMP software. We want to express our appreciation to the many readers who called to our attention a flaw in the algorithm used to prepare the Poisson confidence intervals in Table A8. Because they alerted us, we made corrections and verified all tables generated by us for this edition. To all who responded to our survey, we are indeed indebted. We especially thank Dr. Marta D. Remmenga, Professor at New Mexico State University. She provided us with a detailed account of how she uses the text to teach statistics and gave us a number of helpful suggestions for this edition. All responses were helpful, and we do appreciate the time taken by so many to answer our questionnaire. †Not Waving But Drowning, The Top 500 Poems, Columbia University Press, New York. x PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION Even without this edition, we would be indebted to long-time colleagues in the Department of Statistics at West Virginia University. Over the years, Erdogan Gunel, E. James Harner, and Gerald R. Hobbs have provided the congenial atmosphere and enough help and counsel to make our task easy and joyful. Shirley M. Dowdy Stanley Wearden Daniel M. Chilko