A Concise History of the Arabs

Author: John McHugo

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 1595589503

Category: History

Page: 352

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From Algeria and Libya to Egypt and Syria, the Arab world commands Western headlines, even as its complex politics and cultures elude the grasp of most Western readers and commentators. Perhaps no other region is so closely linked to contemporary U.S. foreign policy, and nowhere else does the unfolding of events have such significant consequences for America. A Concise History of the Arabs argues that the key to understanding the Arab world today—and in the years ahead—is unlocking its past. John McHugo takes the reader on a journey through the political, social, and intellectual history of the Arabs from the Roman Empire right up to the present day. His sweeping and fluent account describes in vivid detail the mission of the Prophet Muhammad, the expansion of Islam, the origins of Shiism, medieval and modern conflicts, the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the interaction with Western ideas, the struggle to escape foreign domination, the rise of Islamism, and the end of the era of dictators. McHugo reveals how the Arab world came to have its present form, why change was inevitable, and what choices lie ahead following the Arab Spring. This deeply informed and accessible account is the perfect entry point for anyone seeking to comprehend this vital part of the world.

After the Prophet

The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam

Author: Lesley Hazleton

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 9780385532099

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 3281

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In this gripping narrative history, Lesley Hazleton tells the tragic story at the heart of the ongoing rivalry between the Sunni and Shia branches of Islam, a rift that dominates the news now more than ever. Even as Muhammad lay dying, the battle over who would take control of the new Islamic nation had begun, beginning a succession crisis marked by power grabs, assassination, political intrigue, and passionate faith. Soon Islam was embroiled in civil war, pitting its founder's controversial wife Aisha against his son-in-law Ali, and shattering Muhammad’s ideal of unity. Combining meticulous research with compelling storytelling, After the Prophet explores the volatile intersection of religion and politics, psychology and culture, and history and current events. It is an indispensable guide to the depth and power of the Shia–Sunni split. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Martyrs of Karbala

Shi'i Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran

Author: Kamran Scot Aghaie

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 029580078X

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 1337

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This innovative study examines patterns of change in Shi�i symbols and rituals over the past two centuries to reveal how modernization has influenced the societal, political, and religious culture of Iran. Shi�is, who support the Prophet Mohammad�s progeny as his successors in opposition to the Sunni caliphate tradition, make up 10 to 15 percent of the world�s Muslim population, roughly half of whom live in Iran. Throughout the early history of the Islamic Middle East, the Sunnis have been associated with the state and the ruling elite, while Shi�is have most often represented the political opposition and have had broad appeal among the masses. Moharram symbols and rituals commemorate the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, in which the Prophet Mohammad�s grandson Hoseyn and most of his family and supporters were massacred by the troops of the Umayyad caliph Yazid. Moharram symbols and rituals are among the most pervasive and popular aspects of Iranian culture and society. This book traces patterns of continuity and change of Moharran symbols and rituals in three aspects of Iranian life: the importance of these rituals in promoting social bonds, status, identities, and ideals; ways in which the three major successive regimes (Qujars, Pahlavis, and the Islamic Republic), have either used these rituals to promote their legitimacy, or have suppressed them because they viewed them as a potential political threat; and the uses of Moharram symbolism by opposition groups interested in overthrowing the regime. While the patterns of government patronage have been radically discontinuous over the past two centuries, the roles of these rituals in popular society and culture have been relatively continuous or have evolved independently of the state. The political uses of modern-day rituals and the enduring symbolism of the Karbala narratives continue today.

Shi'I Islam

A Beginner's Guide

Author: Moojan Momen

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780747888

Category: Religion

Page: 208

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Dr Moojan Momen provides readers with an accessible and insightful introduction to the Shi'i branch of Islam, taking us from its beginnings after the death of the Prophet Muhammad through to the present day. As well as providing a historical overview, the book also introduces readers to Shi'i doctrines and practices, explains the key differences between the Shi'i and Sunni branches of Islam, and addresses the role and position of women within Shi'i communities.

Syria

A History of the Last Hundred Years

Author: John McHugo

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 1620970503

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8300

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The collapse of Syria into civil war over the past two years has spawned a regional crisis whose reverberations grow louder with each passing month. In this timely account, John McHugo seeks to contextualize the headlines, providing broad historical perspective and a richly layered analysis of a country few in the United States know or understand. McHugo charts the history of Syria from World War I to the tumultuous present, examining the country’s thwarted attempts at independence, the French policies that sowed the seeds of internal strife, and the fragility of its foundations as a nation. He then turns to more recent events: religious and sectarian tensions that have riven Syria, the pressures of the Cold War and the Arab-Israeli conflict, and two generations of rule by the Assads. The result is a fresh and rigorous narrative that explains both the creation and unraveling of the current regime and the roots of the broader Middle East conflict. As the Syrian civil war threatens to draw the U.S. military once again into the Middle East, here is a rare and authoritative guide to a complex nation that demands our attention.

Hezbollah

A Short History - Updated Edition

Author: Augustus Richard Norton

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400851440

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 6449

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With Hezbollah's entry into the Lebanese government in 2009 and recent forceful intervention in the Syrian civil war, the potent Shi‘i political and military organization continues to play an enormous role in the Middle East. Policymakers in the United States and Israel usually denounce it as a dangerous terrorist group and refuse to engage with it, yet even its adversaries need to contend with its durability and resilient popular support. Although Hezbollah’s popularity has declined in many quarters of the Arab world, the Shi‘i group—a hybrid of militia, political party, and social services and public works provider—remains the most powerful player in Lebanon. Augustus Richard Norton’s Hezbollah stands as the most lucid, informed, and balanced analysis of the group yet written. This edition, with a new prologue and expanded afterword, analyzes recent momentous events—including Hezbollah’s political performance in Lebanon, inconsistent responses to the Arab Spring, and recent military support of the al-Asad regime in Syria. Hezbollah is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the Middle East.

Shi'ism in America

Author: Liyakatali Takim

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814782965

Category: Religion

Page: 285

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Provides an overview of America's Shi'i community, tracing its history, describing its composition in the twenty-first century, and explaining how they have created an identity for themselves in the American context.

The Struggle of the Shi‘is in Indonesia

Author: Zulkifli

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1925021300

Category: Religion

Page: 304

View: 8820

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The Struggle of the Shi‘is in Indonesia is a pioneering work. It is the first comprehensive scholarly examination in English of the development of Shiism in Indonesia. It focuses primarily on the important period between 1979 and 2004 – a period of nearly a quarter of a century that saw the notable dissemination of Shi’i ideas and a considerable expansion of the number of Shi’i adherents in Indonesia. Since Islam in Indonesia is overwhelmingly Sunni, this development of Shiism in a predominantly Sunni context is a remarkable phenomenon that calls for careful, critical investigation. There is also an important examination of the principal ideas underlying the Madhab Ahl al-Bayt, the Imamate and Imam Madhi, Ja‘fari jurisprudence and ritual piety. Appropriately, in his discussion, Zulkifli provides a succinct outline of contrasts with Sunni ideas and practice. He also examines the publishing efforts that underpinned the dissemination of Shi’i ideas and the founding of IJABI (Ikatan Jamaah Ahlul Bait Indonesia) in July 2000 for the propagation of Ahl al-Bayt teachings. Given the Indonesian context, Zulkifli is also concerned with Sunni reactions to these Shi’i developments – a story that continues to unfold to the present. This book as a work of great value and significance for the continuing understanding of the richness and complexity of Indonesian Islam.

A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam

Author: Gordon Newby

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780744773

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 7006

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This concise reference guide is designed specifically for readers and students who wish to learn more about the world's fastest-growing religion. Fully illustrated, the encyclopedia contains hundreds of alphabetically arranged entries which give succinct yet authoritative information on everything from the Qur'an and its origins to the role of Islam in the USA.

Shi'i Islam

An Introduction

Author: Najam Haider

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107031435

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 8150

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During the formative period of Islam, in the first centuries after Muhammad's death, two particular intellectual traditions emerged, Sunnism and Shi'ism. Sunni Muslims endorsed the historical caliphate, while Shi'i Muslims, supporters of 'Ali, cousin of the Prophet and the fourth caliph, articulated their own distinctive doctrines. The Sunni-Shi'i schism is often framed as a dispute over the identity of the successor to Muhammad, whereas in reality, Sunni and Shi'i Muslims also differ on a number of seminal theological doctrines concerning the nature of God and legitimate political and religious authority. This book examines the development of Shi'i Islam through the lenses of belief, narrative, and memory.It also covers a wide range of Shi'i communities from the demographically predominant Twelvers to the transnational Isma'ilis to the scholar-activist Zaydis. The portrait of Shi'ism that emerges is that of a distinctive and vibrant community of Muslims with a remarkable capacity for reinvention and adaptation, grounded in a unique theological interpretation of Islam.

A Concise History of the Middle East

Author: Arthur Goldschmidt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Middle East

Page: 447

View: 917

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As an introduction to the history of this turbulent region from the beginnings of Islam to the present day, the book is distinguished by its clear style, broad scope, and balanced treatment. Written for college students, the text assumes no prior knowledge of Middle Eastern history. It focuses on the evolution of Islamic institutions and culture, the influence of the West, the modernization efforts of Middle Eastern governments, the struggle of various peoples for political independence, the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the reassertion of Islamic values and power, the aftermath of the Gulf War, and issues surrounding the Palestinian Question. The sixth edition also includes a detailed and updated chronology of events from 570 to 1994, a glossary of names and terms, and a bibliographic essay listing books and other sources that will prove helpful to both teachers and students.

The New Sectarianism

The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi'a-Sunni Divide

Author: Geneive Abdo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190233141

Category: RELIGION

Page: 264

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"The New Sectarianism considers the causes for growing Sunni-Shi'a animosity in countries such as Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. It illustrates how the two groups perceive one another after the Arab uprisings, how these perceptions have affected Arab life, and how these contestations pose a serious threat to the stability of regional states and to stakeholders in the wider world"--

The Arab Shi'a

The Forgotten Muslims

Author: Graham E. Fuller,Rend Rahim Francke

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312239565

Category: History

Page: 290

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This is the first book on the Arab Shi’a community, a group whose identity and relations to the rest of the Middle East cut to the heart of politics and society in the Arab and Muslim world.

A Muslim Primer

Beginner's Guide to Islam

Author: Ira G. Zepp

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781557285959

Category: Religion

Page: 218

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A Muslim Primer covers the basic beliefs of Islam and provides an informative source for both lay and professional readers. First published in 1992, it has proven to be a valuable handbook for all attempting to better understand the tenets of the religion of a major portion of the world's population. The reader is introduced to the authority of the Quran, the prophethood of Muhammad, the Wisdom of the Law, the Five Pillars of Islam, and to other fundamental principles of the religion. Distinctions are made between Sunni and Shiite traditions and the Sufi mystical dimension of Islam. Well organized, visually appealing, and accurate, A Muslim Primer is useful to pre-collegiate and collegiate students of Islam, church and community study groups, and travelers, both tourists and business people.

The Last Girl

My Story of Captivity, and My Fight Against the Islamic State

Author: Nadia Murad

Publisher: Tim Duggan Books

ISBN: 1524760455

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 1797

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WINNER OF THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE In this intimate memoir of survival, a former captive of the Islamic State tells her harrowing and ultimately inspiring story. Nadia Murad was born and raised in Kocho, a small village of farmers and shepherds in northern Iraq. A member of the Yazidi community, she and her brothers and sisters lived a quiet life. Nadia had dreams of becoming a history teacher or opening her own beauty salon. On August 15th, 2014, when Nadia was just twenty-one years old, this life ended. Islamic State militants massacred the people of her village, executing men who refused to convert to Islam and women too old to become sex slaves. Six of Nadia’s brothers were killed, and her mother soon after, their bodies swept into mass graves. Nadia was taken to Mosul and forced, along with thousands of other Yazidi girls, into the ISIS slave trade. Nadia would be held captive by several militants and repeatedly raped and beaten. Finally, she managed a narrow escape through the streets of Mosul, finding shelter in the home of a Sunni Muslim family whose eldest son risked his life to smuggle her to safety. Today, Nadia's story—as a witness to the Islamic State's brutality, a survivor of rape, a refugee, a Yazidi—has forced the world to pay attention to an ongoing genocide. It is a call to action, a testament to the human will to survive, and a love letter to a lost country, a fragile community, and a family torn apart by war.

No god but God (Updated Edition)

The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam

Author: Reza Aslan

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 067964377X

Category: Religion

Page: 384

View: 4746

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A fascinating, accessible introduction to Islam from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Zealot and host of Believer FINALIST FOR THE GUARDIAN FIRST BOOK AWARD In No god but God, internationally acclaimed scholar Reza Aslan explains Islam—the origins and evolution of the faith—in all its beauty and complexity. This updated edition addresses the events of the past decade, analyzing how they have influenced Islam’s position in modern culture. Aslan explores what the popular demonstrations pushing for democracy in the Middle East mean for the future of Islam in the region, how the Internet and social media have affected Islam’s evolution, and how the war on terror has altered the geopolitical balance of power in the Middle East. He also provides an update on the contemporary Muslim women’s movement, a discussion of the controversy over veiling in Europe, an in-depth history of Jihadism, and a look at how Muslims living in North America and Europe are changing the face of Islam. Timely and persuasive, No god but God is an elegantly written account that explains this magnificent yet misunderstood faith. Praise for No god but God “Grippingly narrated and thoughtfully examined . . . a literate, accessible introduction to Islam.”—The New York Times “[Reza] Aslan offers an invaluable introduction to the forces that have shaped Islam [in this] eloquent, erudite paean to Islam in all of its complicated glory.”—Los Angeles Times Book Review “Wise and passionate . . . an incisive, scholarly primer in Muslim history and an engaging personal exploration.”—The New York Times Book Review “Acutely perceptive . . . For many troubled Muslims, this book will feel like a revelation, an opening up of knowledge too long buried.”—The Independent (U.K.) “Thoroughly engaging and excellently written . . . While [Aslan] might claim to be a mere scholar of the Islamic Reformation, he is also one of its most articulate advocates.”—The Oregonian

The Shīʻite Movement in Iraq

Author: Fāliḥ ʻAbd al-Jabbār

Publisher: Saqi Books

ISBN: 9780863563959

Category: Political Science

Page: 391

View: 5900

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Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein. Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein.

The Sunni-Shi'a Divide

Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences

Author: Robert Brenton Betts

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1612345220

Category: Religion

Page: 176

View: 1578

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Until the attacks of September 11, 2001, few Americans knew anything about Islam, let alone about the distinctions between Sunni and Shi'a, the Sufi and Wahhabi, the origins of the Holy Qur'an and Shari'a law, and the respect that all Muslims, even secular ones, harbor for the prophet Muhammad, his family, and Islamic traditions. In The Sunni-Shi'a Divide Robert Betts traces the tortuous history of Islam's sectarian divisions, emphasizing the most important one, the Shi'a departure from Sunni "orthodoxy." Although the majority of Muslims remain faithful to the Sunni sect of Islam, approximately 15 percent subscribe to the Shi'a creed. As America's involvement in the Middle East drags on, Betts reiterates that policymakers, scholars, and laymen alike must understand the many faces of Islam, the internal forces in the United States that have brought us into these conflicts, and the role of Israel in the region's escalating tensions. How the increasing hostility between the two main Islamic factions plays out on the world stage-as Sunni Turkey, Shi'a Iran, and their allies vie for dominance-is of major consequence for everyone, especially financially strapped Europe and the United States.